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Brief Description: Zooplankton collected during the International Indian OceanExpedition (IIOE) 1960-1965
Zooplankton samples collected during International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) 1960-65 are by far the largest and the most important collections from the Indian Ocean in the world today. Though several experts spent decades to study various groups of zooplankton, these valuable data have not been computerized to make permanent records. Hence a database for IIOE zooplankton is initiated as a cooperative project of CMarZ and a part of the IIOE data have been digitized.
During IIOE 1548 standard zooplankton samples were collected covering the entire Indian Ocean. The database is prepared based on published information on these zooplankton samples. Three sets of Tables are made: (1) Basic data on zooplankton volume, total population and all the 54 taxa found in the collections. (2) Data emerged from subsorting of copepods, decapods and fish larvae (3) Species level data for chaetognaths for entire Indian Ocean and ostracods for northern Indian Ocean.' (from summary of CMarZ Cooperative Project final report)
An enormous amount of data emerged through IIOE collections (25 °N to 45°S latitude and 30 to 120°E longitude) had been digitized to make permanent records of the zooplankton of the Indian Ocean (Nair, 2005). The proposed baseline biodiversity assessment of CMarZ has a critical application for ocean research to provide a benchmark against which future comparisons can be made. The first step towards this endeavour would be to digitize the recorded species from different sectors of the world oceans along with their biogeography. This project aims to bring out inventories for the known species of major groups of zooplankton of the Indian Ocean. This information can be incorporated into CMarZ species page, an endeavour to enhance capacity in zooplankton taxonomic analyses.
Although technically retired, Vijaya Nair remains the contact for anyone seeking information about these data.
Vijayalakshmi R. Nair
South Bridge Avenue, Panampilly Nagar
Kochi 682036, Kerala, India
"It was recommended that each research vessel, every night between 2200 and 0200 hours local time, take one vertical haul from 200m to the surface, hauling in the net at a speed of 1 m/sec. The samples were then to be preserved in 10% formalin neutralized with hexamethylenetetramine. The displacement volume of the catch [was], if possible, measured at the earliest opportunity by an accepted method. The samples were then sent to the Sorting Centre for further processing. Many vessels took duplicate hauls, one for the Centre and one for the use of individual scientists in their respective countries." (Hansen, 1966).
Inventory is based on materials collected during IIOE and later collections made by NIO and other Institutions along the coastal and oceanic realms of the Indian Ocean.
References: Hansen, Vagn Kr., 1966. The Indian Ocean Biological Centre: The centre for sorting plankton samples of the International Indian Ocean Expedition. Deep-Sea Res., 13, pp.229-234.
Devi, C.B.L. 1986. Studies on the flat fish (Heterosomata) larvae of the Indian Ocean. Thesis submitted to University of Kerala for the Degree of Doctor of Phiolosophy. University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram. 480 pp.
George, J. and Nair, V.R. 1980. Planktonic ostracods of the northern Indian Ocean. Mahasagar - Bull. Natn. Inst. Oceanogr. 13 (1) : 29-44.
Nair, V.R., 2001. Zooplankton. In : The Indian Ocean, a Perspective Volume 2. R. Sen Gupta and E. Desa (Eds.) 417-450. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt., Ltd., New Delhi, Calcutta.
Nair, V.R., 2005. Database for zooplankton collected during International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) 1960-65. Cooperating project Report. Census of Marine Zooplankton (CMarZ), Connecticut, USA.
Rosamma Stephen, 1999. Studies on copepods of the Indian Ocean with reference to the west coast of India, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Mumbai, Mumbai. 206pp.
S.U.Panampunnayil, 1999. Studies on the Mysidacea (Crustacea) of the Indian Ocean with reference to Indian waters. Ph.D. Thesis, Mumbai University, Mumbai. 223pp.
Sverdrup, H.U., Johnson, M.W. and Fleming, R.H. 1942. The Oceans, their physics, chemistry and general biology. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1087pp.
The Biology of the Indian Ocean. 1973. B. Zeitzshcel and S.A. Gerlach (Eds.). Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. New York. 549 pp.
Wyrtki, K., 1973. Physical Oceanography of the Indian Ocean. In: The Biology of the Indian Ocean. B. Zeitzschel, S.A. Gerlach (Eds) Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York. 18-36.
None available yet
The Indian Ocean Standard Net was designed specifically for the International Indian Ocean Exploration project. The net has a mouth area of one square meter and a total length of 5 meters. The net is made of nylon gauze with a mesh size of .333 mm (330um).
abbreviated ship designation
cruise number of the particular vessel
Station number gives approximate location
latitude of tow, North = positive
longitude tow, East = positive
Date (local time)
D = Day; N = night
displacement volume of sample
total number of individuals in tow
reference number of sample
common name of group
number of individuals counted
year of collection
Depth of water at this station.
Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office.
Funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation