Instruments

Instrument Namesort descending Acronym Description
A/D Data Logging Card A/D Data Logger

Analog to Digital cards used for logging data from analog sensors (voltages, etc)

Aanderaa Oxygen Optodes AOO

Aanderaa Oxygen Optodes are instrument for monitoring oxygen in the environment. For instrument information see the Aanderaa Oxygen Optodes Product Brochure.

Aanderaa Recording Current Meter Aanderaa Current Meter

The Aanderaa Recording Current Meter (RCM) is a self-contained instrument that can be moored in the sea and record ocean current, water temperature, conductivity of the water and depth of the instrument. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known. (more from Aanderaa).

Aanderaa Tide Gauge Aanderaa Tide Gauge

The Aanderaa tide gauge measures and records the time and height of the sea surface as it changes with the tides.

AC 9 AC-9

"The WET Labs AC-9 is a type of in-situ spectrophotometer that simultaneously determines the spectral transmittance and spectral absorption of water over nine wavelengths. The unit offers compact size, high precision, and excellent stability in providing a method for determining the absorption (a(l)) and beam attenuation (c(l)) coefficients. The AC-9 employs a 25-cm pathlength for effective measurement of the cleanest natural waters. The unit is also available in a 10-cm pathlength configuration." (more from WET Labs)

Accelerator Mass Spectrometer AMS

An AMS measures "long-lived radionuclides that occur naturally in our environment. AMS uses a particle accelerator in conjunction with ion sources, large magnets, and detectors to separate out interferences and count single atoms in the presence of 1x1015 (a thousand million million) stable atoms, measuring the mass-to-charge ratio of the products of sample molecule disassociation, atom ionization and ion acceleration." AMS permits ultra low-level measurement of compound concentrations and isotope ratios that traditional alpha-spectrometry cannot provide. (more from Purdue University)

Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler ADCP

The ADCP measures water currents with sound, using a principle of sound waves called the Doppler effect. A sound wave has a higher frequency, or pitch, when it moves to you than when it moves away. You hear the Doppler effect in action when a car speeds past with a characteristic building of sound that fades when the car passes.
The ADCP works by transmitting "pings" of sound at a constant frequency into the water. (The pings are so highly pitched that humans and even dolphins can't hear them.) As the sound waves travel, they ricochet off particles suspended in the moving water, and reflect back to the instrument. Due to the Doppler effect, sound waves bounced back from a particle moving away from the profiler have a slightly lowered frequency when they return. Particles moving toward the instrument send back higher frequency waves. The difference in frequency between the waves the profiler sends out and the waves it receives is called the Doppler shift. The instrument uses this shift to calculate how fast the particle and the water around it are moving.
Sound waves that hit particles far from the profiler take longer to come back than waves that strike close by. By measuring the time it takes for the waves to bounce back and the Doppler shift, the profiler can measure current speed at many different depths with each series of pings. (More from WHOI instruments listing).

Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler bio ADCP-bio

Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler used to scan for plankton concentrations.

Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer AVHRR

"The AVHRR instrument consists of an array of small sensors that record (as digital numbers) the amount of visible and infrared radiation reflected and (or) emitted from the Earth's surface" (more information).

Aerosol Sampler Aerosol_Sampler

A device that collects a sample of aerosol (dry particles or liquid droplets) from the atmosphere.

Aggregate Camera AggrCam

A type of underwater camera system.

Air Temperature Sensor AirTemp

Measures air temperature

Airstone Airstone

Airstone - Also called an aquarium bubbler, is a piece of aquarium furniture, traditionally a piece of limewood or porous stone, whose purpose is to gradually diffuse air into the tank, eliminating the noise and large bubbles of conventional air filtration systems

Alpkem RFA300 Alpkem RFA300

A rapid flow analyser (RFA) that may be used to measure nutrient concentrations in seawater. It is an air-segmented, continuous flow instrument comprising a sampler, a peristaltic pump which simultaneously pumps samples, reagents and air bubbles through the system, analytical cartridge, heating bath, colorimeter, data station, and printer. The RFA-300 was a precursor to the smaller Alpkem RFA/2 (also RFA II or RFA-2).

Altimeter Altimeter

An instrument that measures height above a fixed surface. The data can be used to map ocean-surface topography and generate gridded surface height fields.

Alvin Heatflow Probe 0.66m Alvin Heatflow Probe 0.66m

The Heatflow probe is a temperature measuring device on the submersible Alvin. It is a 0.6 m titanium tube containing a linear heater and 5 thermistors. The Heatflow probe is designed to measure temperature gradients when inserted into soft sediments.

Alvin High Temperature Probe Alvin High Temp Probe

A temperature measuring device on the submersible Alvin. The high temperature probe is capable of reading in-situ water temperatures from 0 to 450 degrees C.

Alvin tube core Tube Core

A plastic tube, about 40 cm (16 inches) long, is pushed into the sediment by Alvin's manipulator arm to collect a sediment core.

Anemometer Anemometer

An anemometer is a device for measuring the velocity or the pressure of the wind. It is commonly used to measure wind speed. Aboard research vessels, it is often mounted with other meteorological instruments and sensors.

Aquarium Aquarium

Aquarium - a vivarium consisting of at least one transparent side in which water-dwelling plants or animals are kept

Aquarium chiller Aquarium chiller

Immersible or in-line liquid cooling device, usually with temperature control.

Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometer APIMS

The Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometer measures dimethylsulfide (DMS) in ambient air and in sea water. This instrument is used to measure DMS fluxes directly in the marine boundary layer.

Atmospheric Sampling Mast Atm Sampling Mast

Atmospheric Sampling Mast - used to collect airborne samples for analysis such as in aerosol studies.

Automated DNA Sequencer Automated Sequencer

General term for a laboratory instrument used for deciphering the order of bases in a strand of DNA. Sequencers detect fluorescence from different dyes that are used to identify the A, C, G, and T extension reactions.

Automated Weather Station AWS

Land-based AWS systems are designed to record meteorological information, for example the installations in the vicinity of Kirkland and Dismal Island off the Western Antarctic Peninsula.

Automatic titrator Automatic titrator

Instruments that incrementally add quantified aliquots of a reagent to a sample until the end-point of a chemical reaction is reached.

Autosal salinometer salinometer

The salinometer is an instrument for measuring the salinity of a water sample.

AUV Sentry AUV Sentry

The autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) Sentry is a fully autonomous underwater vehicle capable of exploring the ocean down to 6,000 meters (19,685 feet) depth. Sentry builds on the success of its predecessor the ABE, with improved speed, range, and maneuverability.
Sentry's hydrodynamic shape also allows faster ascents and descents. Sentry carries a superior science sensor suite and an increased science payload enabling it to be used for both mid-water and near-seabed oceanographic investigations. Sentry produces bathymetric, sidescan, subbottom, and magnetic maps of the seafloor and is capable of taking digital bottom photographs in a variety of deep-sea terrains such as mid-ocean ridges, deep-sea vents, and cold seeps at ocean margins. Sentry is uniquely able to operate in extreme terrain, including volcano caldera and scarps. Sentry's navigation system uses a doppler velocity log and inertial navigation system, aided by acoustic navigation systems (USBL or LBL). The USBL system also provides acoustic communications, which can be used to obtain the vehicle state and sensor status as well as to retask the vehicle while on the bottom. In addition its standard sensors, Sentry has carried a variety of science-supplied sensors, including the Nakamura redox potential probe, ACFR 3-D imaging system, and the Tethys in-situ mass spectrometer.

Sentry can be used to locate and quantify hydrothermal fluxes. Sentry is also capable of a much wider range of oceanographic applications due to its superior sensing suite, increased speed and endurance, improved navigation, and acoustic communications. Sentry can be used as a stand alone vehicle or in tandem with Alvin or an ROV to increase the efficiency of deep-submergence investigations.

More information is available from the operator site at URL: http://www.whoi.edu/main/sentry

Barometer Barometer

A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. There are many types of barometers identified by make and model and method of measurement.

BASi Controlled Growth Mercury Electrode BASI CGME

Bioanalytical Systems (BASi) Mercury drop electrodes are generated by the BASi Controlled Growth Mercury Electrode (CGME) in three modes:

DME (Dropping Mercury Electrode) - mercury is allowed to flow freely from the reservoir down the capillary and so the growth of the mercury drop and its lifetime is controlled by gravity. (The optional 100 um capillary is recommended for this mode.)

SMDE (Static Mercury Drop Electrode) - the drop size is determined by the length of time for which the fast-response capillary valve is opened, and the drop is dislodged by a drop knocker. The dispense/knock timing is microprocessor-controlled and is typically coordinated with the potential pulse or square-wave waveform. This mode can also used to generate the Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode required for stripping experiments.

CGME (Controlled Growth Mercury Electrode) - the mercury drop is grown by a series of pulses that open the capillary valve. The number of pulses, their duration, and their frequency can be varied by PC control, providing great flexibility in both the drop size and its rate of growth. This CGME mode can be used for both polarographic and stripping experiments.

http://www.basinc.com/products/ec/cgme.php

BASi EC-epsilon 2 Autoanalyzer BASi EC-epsilon 2

The Bioanalytical Systems EC epsilon is a family of potentiostat/galvanostats for electrochemistry. The most basic epsilon instrument can be used for standard techniques, as well as chronopotentiometry for materials characterization (e.g., characterization of transition metal complexes by cyclic voltammetry and controlled potential electrolysis, or of biosensors by cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry). Pulse, square wave, and stripping techniques can be added by a software upgrade, and a second channel can be added by a hardware upgrade.

http://www.basinc.com/products/ec/epsilon/

Beam Trawl Beam trawl

A beam trawl consists of a cone-shaped body ending in a bag or codend, which retains the catch. In these trawls the horizontal opening of the net is provided by a beam, made of wood or metal, which is up to 12 m long. The vertical opening is provided by two hoop-like trawl shoes mostly made from steel. No hydrodynamic forces are needed to keep a beam trawl open. The beam trawl is normally towed on outriggers, one trawl on each side.

While fishing for flatfish the beam trawl is often equipped with tickler chains to disturb the fish from the seabed. For operations on very rough fishing grounds they can be equipped with chain matrices. Chain matrices are rigged between the beam and the groundrope and prevent boulders/stones from being caught by the trawl. Shrimp beam trawls are not so heavy and have smaller mesh sizes. A bobbin of groundrope with rubber bobbins keeps the shrimp beam trawl in contact with the bottom and gives flatfish the opportunity to escape.

Close bottom contact is necessary for successful operation. To avoid bycatch of most juvenile fishes selectivity devices are assembled (sieve nets, sorting grids, escape holes). While targeting flatfish the beam trawls are towed up to seven knots, therefore the gear is very heavy; the largest gears weighs up to 10 ton. The towing speed for shrimp is between 2.5 and 3 knots.

(from: http://www.fao.org/fishery/geartype/305/en)

Benchtop pH Meter Benchtop pH Meter

An instrument consisting of an electronic voltmeter and pH-responsive electrode that gives a direct conversion of voltage differences to differences of pH at the measurement temperature. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms)

This instrument does not map to the NERC instrument vocabulary term for 'pH Sensor' which measures values in the water column. Benchtop models are typically employed for stationary lab applications.

Binoculars, Big Eye Big Eye Binocs

Big eye binoculars generally used for mammal observations. 25x optical.

Binoculars, Handheld Binocs

Handheld binoculars, generally used for bird observations.

BIo-Optical Multi-frequency Acoustical and Physical Environmental Recorder II BIOMAPERII

BIOMAPER II is a set of sensors on a long aluminum frame that resembles the tail of a World War II airplane. A research vessel tows the instrument through the water on a specialized tow cable that sends power to the sensors and brings data back to the ship. People use BIOMAPER II to learn about phytoplankton and zooplankton over areas that are too large to study with the traditional net-and-microscope method. Whereas nets can sample areas up to about 5 meters (16 feet) on a side, BIOMAPER II can record data from 500 meters (1,640 feet) or more of the water column at a time. The instrument's standard suite of sensors were chosen for studying plankton: a five-frequency sonar system, a video plankton recorder and an environmental sensor system (ESS, like the one on MOCNESS). The ESS measures water temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll and light levels. BIOMAPER II also has room for attaching other instruments for specific uses. The instrument's official name is BIOMAPER-II: the BIo-Optical Multi-frequency Acoustical and Physical Environmental Recorder. The Roman numeral II indicates that it's a redesign of the original BIOMAPER, a prototype that was invented and tested in the mid 1990s. (more information).

Bio-Optical Profiling System BOPS

Bio-Optical Profiling System (BOPS) is an updated version of the BOPS originally developed by Smith et al. (1984) and is used to collect optical data. The heart of the BOPS is a Biospherical instruments MER-1048 Spectroradiometer which measures up and downwelling spectral irradiance and upwelling spectral radiance. The MER-1048 also has sensors for Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR), depth, tilt and roll. In addition, temperature and conductivity are measured with a Sea-Bird CTD, chlorophyll fluorescence is measured with a Sea Tech fluorometer and beam transmission with a Sea Tech 25-cm transmissometer. The Mer-1048 acquires all the data 16 times a second, averages it to four records a second and sends it up the cable to a deck box and a Compaq-286 computer which stores the data on the hard disk. Additionally, a deck cell measures the downwelling surface irradiance in four spectral channels. Also surface PAR is measured continuously using a Biospherical Instruments QSR-240 Integrating PAR sensor. The profile data is commonly filtered to remove obvious data spikes and then binned into one-meter averages.

Raymond C. Smith, Charles R. Booth, and Jeffrey L. Star, "Oceanographic biooptical profiling system," Appl. Opt. 23, 2791-2797 (1984).

BioSonics DT-X Digital Scientific Echosounder BioSonics DT-X Echosounder

The BioSonics DT-X Digital Scientific Echosounder is available in single or spilt beam configuration. The resultant data set comprises 38 and 120 kHz split beam data. The DT-X Digital Scientific Echosounder is used for stock assessment, biomass estimates, and habitat mapping. DT-X digital transducers are available in a range of frequencies (38, 70, 120, 200, and 420 kHz) and beam patterns in split beam or single beam. Up to 5 transducers can be mulltiplexed for simultaneous data collection in any combination of frequencies and transducer orientations. The BioSonics split beam echosounder data can be analyzed for fish quantity, individual sizes, direction of travel through the acoustic beam. Data analysis is done using BioSonics, Echoview, or Sonar4/5-Pro software (and other options are available). Additional information is available from: BioSonics DT-X Digital Echosounder (http://www.biosonicsinc.com/product-overview.asp), BioSonics (http://www.biosonicsinc.com), Echoview (http://www.echoview.com/), and Sonar4/5-Pro (http://tid.uio.no/~hbalk/sonar4_5/index.htm).

Biospherical QSP-200L underwater PAR Sensor QSP-200L underwater PAR

Underwater radiometer with a PAR spectral response (400-700nm). Standard configuration had a spherical collector measuring 4-pi scalar irradiance but a flat plate cosine collector was available as an identically-designated option.

Biospherical QSR-240 surface PAR QSR-240 surface PAR

Shipboard radiometer with a PAR spectral response (400-700nm) designed to monitor surface irradiance during underwater light profile measurement. Hemispherical collector measuring 2-pi scalar irradiance.

Bongo Net Bongo Net

A Bongo Net consists of paired plankton nets, typically with a 60 cm diameter mouth opening and varying mesh sizes, 10 to 1000 micron. The Bongo Frame was designed by the National Marine Fisheries Service for use in the MARMAP program. It consists of two cylindrical collars connected with a yoke so that replicate samples are collected at the same time. Variations in models are designed for either vertical hauls (OI-2500 = NMFS Pairovet-Style, MARMAP Bongo, CalVET) or both oblique and vertical hauls (Aquatic Research). The OI-1200 has an opening and closing mechanism that allows discrete "known-depth" sampling. This model is large enough to filter water at the rate of 47.5 m3/minute when towing at a speed of two knots. More information: Ocean Instruments, Aquatic Research, Sea-Gear

Bottom Sediment Grab Samplers BSGS

These samplers are designed to collect an accurate representative sample of the sediment bottom. The bite of the sampler should be deep enough so all depths are sampled equally. The closing mechanism is required to completely close and hold the sample as well as prevent wash-out during retrieval. Likewise, during descent the sampler should be designed to minimize disturbance of the topmost sediment by the pressure wave as it is lowered to the bottom.

Box Corer Box Corer

This is one of the simplest and most commonly used sediment corers. The stainless steel sampling box can contain a surface sediment block as large as 50cm X 50cm X 75cm with negligible disturbance. Once the sediment is recovered onboard, the sediment box can be detached from the frame and taken to a laboratory for subsampling and further analysis. The core sample size is controlled by the speed at which the corer is lowered into the ocean bottom. When the bottom is firm, a higher speed is required to obtain a complete sample. A depth pinger or other depth indicator is generally used to determine when the box is completely filled with sediment. Once the core box is filled with sediment, the sample is secured by moving the spade-closing lever arm to lower the cutting edge of the spade into the sediment, until the spade completely covers the bottom of the sediment box. (more from WHOI instrument page).

Bran Luebbe AA3 AutoAnalyzer Bran Luebbe AA3 AutoAnalyzer

Bran Luebbe AA3 AutoAnalyzer

See the description from the manufacturer.

bucket bucket

A bucket used to collect surface sea water samples.

CalVet CalVet

The California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) Vertical Egg Tow device is a type of vertical net tow. Note that mesh sizes may vary.

Camera camera

A camera (could be a 35 mm type), most often used to photograph marine mammals or birds.

Camera - Sediment Profile Imaging SPI Camera

The sediment profile imaging (SPI) system is designed to photograph the sediment-water interface without creating disturbance. A sharp-edged prism cuts cleanly into the sediment to a depth of 15 to 20 cm. The camera is mounted in the top of the prism, and a mirror is used to reflect the sediment image to the camera from the vertical faceplate. Since the sediment is right up against the faceplate, lack of water clarity is never a limitation on this optical method. (from http://www.csc.noaa.gov/benthic/mapping/techniques/sensors/spi.htm)

Camera SONY CCD V801 Camera SONY CCD V801

The SONY CCD V801 is a Deep-Sea Power and Light AVCS-101 Autonomous Video Camera for capturing underwater images.

Carlo-Erba NA-1500 Elemental Analyzer Carlo-Erba NA-1500

A laboratory instrument that simultaneously determines total nitrogen and total carbon from a wide range of organic and inorganic sediment samples. The sample is completely and instantaneously oxidised by flash combustion, which converts all organic and inorganic substances into combustion products. The resulting combustion gases pass through a reduction furnace and are swept into the chromatographic column by the carrier gas which is helium. The gases are separated in the column and detected by the thermal conductivity detector which gives an output signal proportional to the concentration of the individual components of the mixture. The instrument was originally manufactured by Carlo-Erba, which has since been replaced by Thermo Scientific (part of Thermo Fisher Scientific). This model is no longer in production.

Cary 50 spectrophotometer Cary 50

A Cary 50 spectrophotometer measures absorbance (200-800 nm).

CHN Elemental Analyzer CHN_EA

A CHN Elemental Analyzer is used for the determination of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen content in organic and other types of materials, including solids, liquids, volatile, and viscous samples.

Clarke-Bumpus Sampler Clarke-Bumpus net

"Clarke and Bumpus designed a small two-messenger zooplankton collection system that could be deployed as multiple units on the wire and had a positive means of opening and closing the mouth of the net. A frame attached at the top and bottom to the towing wire supported a cylindrical tube 12.7 cm in diameter and 16 cm long, to which a net was attached. In the mouth of the tube was a flat plate (like a stove pipe damper plate),which closed off the cylinder when the net was deployed. When the first messenger released a spring-loaded latch, the plate was rotated 90 degrees, opening the net; a second messenger rotated it another 90 degrees to close the net. A flowmeter at the back of the cylinder recorded flow through the net." (Wiebe and Benfield, 2003) The instruments were equipped with No. 2 silk nets (22 strands/cm.) and "oblique" hauls were made at a speed of about 2 knots for periods of 25 to 40 minutes.

References:
CLARKE, G. L., AND D. F. BUMPUS, 1940. The Plankton Sampler-an instrument for quantitative plankton investigations. Linnological Society of America, Special Pub., (No. 5): 1-8.

Wiebe, Peter H. and Mark C. Benfield, 2003. From the Hensen net toward four-dimensional biological oceanography. Progress in Oceanography, 56, pp. 7-136.

CO2 Analyzer CO2 Analyzer

Measures atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration.

CO2 Coulometer CO2 coulometer

A CO2 coulometer semi-automatically controls the sample handling and extraction of CO2 from seawater samples. Samples are acidified and the CO2 gas is bubbled into a titration cell where CO2 is converted to hydroxyethylcarbonic acid which is then automatically titrated with a coulometrically-generated base to a colorimetric endpoint.

Coastal Ocean Lagrangian Float COOL float

A COastal Ocean Lagrangian (COOL) float measures compass angle, pressure, and temperature and is constructed from a glass pipe 2.2 m long and with an outer diameter of 9.5 cm. The float consists of the glass pipe, electronics, a volume changer (VOCHA) located within the float, vanes and a compass, a pinger and either a compressee or drop weight. The COOL float is based on the previously designed isopycnal f/h float (Rossby et al., 1994). Glass was used since it has a very small thermal expansion coefficient. Thus, the float will remain on the same density surface even if the temperature and salinity of the water changes but its density doesn't. If a water parcel is displaced vertically, it will either expand or compress due to the change in pressure and not change its potential density. Since the glass float is less compressible than seawater, it will not follow this water parcel. Therefore, a compressee is added to the float to match the float's compressibility to that of seawater. The COOL float has a volume changer (VOCHA) in it to allow the float to follow a water parcel whose density is changing. However, in our short test deployments, we only used the VOCHA for calibration purposes (described later). Eight vanes at a angle to the horizontal and a compass were added to the isopycnal f/h to make the COOL float. As water flows vertically past the float, the vanes will make the float rotate. Measuring the rotation rate with a compass inside the float will provide a measure of the vertical velocity past the float. If the float is isobaric (that is, the float will remain at a constant pressure; it does not have a compressee), the vertical velocity past the float will be mainly due to the vertical velocity of internal waves. However, vanes on the isopycnal COOL float will make it respond to diapycnal velocities instead of vertical velocities. That is, the float will measure only the amount of water flowing past the float whose density is changing.

Cod Drifter Cod Drifter

Short-term drifter incubation deployment. Incubators are filled with seawater and larval cod and food sources, and then placed in situ at various depths to enable investigation of the effect of light and turbulence on feeding success.

Cod Pot Cod Pot

Crab pots modified to catch cod. Variously designed: floating v. static; large v. small; two or more large entrances v. one small entrance, rigid v. collapsible.

Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectrophotometer CVAFS

A Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescent Spectrophotometer (CVAFS) is an instrument used for quantitative determination of volatile heavy metals, such as mercury. CVAFS make use of the characteristic of mercury that allows vapor measurement at room temperature. Mercury atoms in an inert carrier gas are excited by a collimated UV light source at a particular wavelength. As the atoms return to their non-excited state they re-radiate their absorbed energy at the same wavelength. The fluorescence may be detected using a photomultiplier tube or UV photodiode.

Condensation Particle Counter CPC

Measures the total condensation nucleus concentration of aerosol particles.

Conductivity Meter Conductivity Meter

Conductivity Meter - An electrical conductivity meter (EC meter) measures the electrical conductivity in a solution. Commonly used in hydroponics, aquaculture and freshwater systems to monitor the amount of nutrients, salts or impurities in the water.

CTD Falmouth Scientific Instruments CTD FSI

CTD measurements taken by the Falmouth Scientific Instruments sensor.

CTD MOCNESS CTD MOCNESS

The CTD part of the MOCNESS includes 1) a pressure (depth) sensor which is a thermally isolated titanium strain gauge with a standard range of 0-5000 decibars full scale, 2) A Sea Bird temperature sensor whose frequency output is measured and sent to the surface for logging and conversion to temperature by the software in the MOCNESS
computer (The system allows better than 1 milli-degree resolution at 10 Hz sampling rate), and 3) A Sea Bird conductivity sensor whose output frequency is measured and sent to the surface for logging and conversion to conductivity by the software in the computer (The
system allows better than 1 micro mho/cm at 10 Hz sampling rate). The data rate depends on the speed of the computer and the quality of the cable. With a good cable, the system can operate at 2400 baud, sampling all variables at 2 times per second. One sample every 4 seconds is the default, although the hardware can operate much faster. (From The MOCNESS Manual)

CTD Neil Brown Mark 5 CTD NBIS MK5

The Neil Brown Instrument Systems Mark 5 CTD is used to measure conductivity, temperature, and depth of sea water. The MK5 profiler has a higher sampling rate then the SeaBird SEACAT. (For the GLOBEC Georges Bank project the Mark 5 was instrumented with an expanded suite of sensors and deployed almost exclusively at GLOBEC Standard stations.)

CTD Neil Brown Mark III CTD NBIS MK3

The Neil Brown Instrument Systems Mark III Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) instrument is an integral unit containing pressure, temperature and conductivity sensors with an optional dissolved oxygen sensor in a pressure-hardened casing. Developed in the 1970s, the Neil Brown CTD unit was able to digitize conductivity, temperature and pressure measurements at sufficient speeds to permit oceanographers to study 10 cm features at winch lowering speeds of 30 meters per minute. The most widely used variant in the 1980s and 1990s was the MK3B. The MK3C fitted with an improved pressure sensor to reduce hysteresis was developed to meet the requirements of the WOCE project. The instrument is no longer in production, but is supported (repair and calibration) by General Oceanics.

CTD Neil Brown Mark III plus TAPS CTD NBIS MK3-TAPS

This is an integrated instrument package comprising a Neil Brown Instrument Systems Mark III Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) profiler unit with a Tracor Acoustic Profiling System (TAPS). (see TAPS entry for a description of that instrument)

CTD profiler CTD

The Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) unit is an integrated instrument package designed to measure the conductivity, temperature, and pressure (depth) of the water column. The instrument is lowered via cable through the water column and permits scientists observe the physical properties in real time via a conducting cable connecting the CTD to a deck unit and computer on the ship. The CTD is often configured with additional optional sensors including fluorometers, transmissometers and/or radiometers. It is often combined with a Rosette of water sampling bottles (e.g. Niskin, GO-FLO) for collecting discrete water samples during the cast. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known.

CTD Sea-Bird CTD Sea-Bird

Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) sensor package from SeaBird Electronics, no specific unit identified. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known. See also other SeaBird instruments listed under CTD. More information from Sea-Bird Electronics.

CTD Sea-Bird 25 CTD SBE 25

The Sea-Bird SBE 25 SEALOGGER CTD is battery powered and is typically used to record data in memory, eliminating the need for a large vessel, electrical sea cable, and on-board computer. All SBE 25s can also operate in real-time, transmitting data via an opto-isolated RS-232 serial port.

Temperature and conductivity are measured by the SBE 3F Temperature sensor and SBE 4 Conductivity sensor (same as those used on the premium SBE 9plus CTD). The SBE 25 also includes the SBE 5P (plastic) or 5T (titanium) Submersible Pump and TC Duct. The pump-controlled, TC-ducted flow configuration significantly reduces salinity spiking caused by ship heave, and in calm waters allows slower descent rates for improved resolution of water column features. Pressure is measured by the modular SBE 29 Temperature Compensated Strain-Gauge Pressure sensor (available in eight depth ranges to suit the operating depth requirement).

The SBE 25's modular design makes it easy to configure in the field for a wide range of auxiliary sensors, including optional dissolved oxygen (SBE 43), pH (SBE 18 or SBE 27), fluorescence, transmissivity, PAR, and optical backscatter sensors.

more information from Sea-Bird Electronics

CTD Sea-Bird 41 CTD SBE 41

The Sea-Bird SBE 41 CTD module was originally developed in 1997 for integration with sub-surface oceanographic floats. It uses MicroCAT Temperature, Conductivity, and Pressure sensors.

CTD Sea-Bird 9 CTD SBE 9

The Sea-Bird SBE 9 is a type of CTD instrument package. The SBE 9 is the Underwater Unit and is most often combined with the SBE 11 Deck Unit (for real-time readout using conductive wire) when deployed from a research vessel. The combination of the SBE 9 and SBE 11 is called a SBE 911. The SBE 9 uses Sea-Bird's standard modular temperature and conductivity sensors (SBE 3 and SBE 4). The SBE 9 CTD can be configured with auxiliary sensors to measure other parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, fluorometer, altimeter, etc.). Note that in most cases, it is more accurate to specify SBE 911 than SBE 9 since it is likely a SBE 11 deck unit was used. more information from Sea-Bird Electronics

CTD Sea-Bird 911 CTD SBE 911

The Sea-Bird SBE 911 is a type of CTD instrument package. The SBE 911 includes the SBE 9 Underwater Unit and the SBE 11 Deck Unit (for real-time readout using conductive wire) for deployment from a vessel. The combination of the SBE 9 and SBE 11 is called a SBE 911. The SBE 9 uses Sea-Bird's standard modular temperature and conductivity sensors (SBE 3 and SBE 4). The SBE 9 CTD can be configured with auxiliary sensors to measure other parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, fluorescence, light (PAR), light transmission, etc.). More information from Sea-Bird Electronics.

CTD Sea-Bird MicroCAT 37 CTD MicroCAT 37

The Sea-Bird MicroCAT CTD unit is a high-accuracy conductivity and temperature recorder based on the Sea-Bird SBE 37 MicroCAT series of products. It can be configured with optional pressure sensor, internal batteries, memory, built-in Inductive Modem, integral Pump, and/or SBE-43 Integrated Dissolved Oxygen sensor. Constructed of titanium and other non-corroding materials for long life with minimal maintenance, the MicroCAT is designed for long duration on moorings.

In a typical mooring, a modem module housed in the buoy communicates with underwater instruments and is interfaced to a computer or data logger via serial port. The computer or data logger is programmed to poll each instrument on the mooring for its data, and send the data to a telemetry transmitter (satellite link, cell phone, RF modem, etc.). The MicroCAT saves data in memory for upload after recovery, providing a data backup if real-time telemetry is interrupted.

CTD Sea-Bird SBE 911plus CTD SBE 911plus

The Sea-Bird SBE 911plus is a type of CTD instrument package for continuous measurement of conductivity, temperature and pressure. The SBE 911plus includes the SBE 9plus Underwater Unit and the SBE 11plus Deck Unit (for real-time readout using conductive wire) for deployment from a vessel. The combination of the SBE 9plus and SBE 11plus is called a SBE 911plus. The SBE 9plus uses Sea-Bird's standard modular temperature and conductivity sensors (SBE 3plus and SBE 4). The SBE 9plus CTD can be configured with up to eight auxiliary sensors to measure other parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, fluorescence, light (PAR), light transmission, etc.). more information from Sea-Bird Electronics

CTD Sea-Bird SEACAT CTD SEACAT

The CTD SEACAT recorder is an instrument package manufactured by Sea-Bird Electronics. The first Sea-Bird SEACAT Recorder was the original SBE 16 SEACAT developed in 1987. There are several model numbers including the SBE 16plus (SEACAT C-T Recorder (P optional))and the SBE 19 (SBE 19plus SEACAT Profiler measures conductivity, temperature, and pressure (depth)). This instrument designation is used when make and model are not known. more information from Sea-Bird Electronics

CTD Sea-Bird SEACAT 19 CTD SBE 19

The Sea-Bird SBE 19 SEACAT Recorder measures conductivity, temperature, and pressure (depth). The SEACAT is self-powered and self-contained and can be deployed in profiling or moored mode. The SBE 19 SEACAT was replaced in 2001 by the 19plus. more information from Sea-Bird Electronics

CTD SeaSoar CTD SeaSoar

CTD measurements taken during a SeaSoar tow.

CTD TRIAXUS CTD TRIAXUS

Sea-bird SBE 9 pumped CTD attached to the Triaxus towed undulating platform. The Triaxus towed undulating vehicle, designed and manufactured by MacArtney, achieves high resolution 3-dimensional surveys of the upper 180m of the water column. The standard sensor package includes a Seabird CTD (with optional secondary C and T sensors), transmissometer, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll fluorometer, and PAR sensor. In addition to this basic configuration, Triaxus can accommodate up to 9 additional sensor packages / sensors. See http://www.macartney.com/systems/remote-technology/triaxus.

CTD-fluorometer CTD-fluorometer

A CTD-fluorometer is an instrument package designed to measure hydrographic information (pressure, temperature and conductivity) and chlorophyll fluorescence.

CTD-FRRfluorometer CTD-FRRf

A CTD-FRRf fluorometer is an instrument package designed to measure hydrographic information (pressure, temperature and conductivity) and chlorophyll fluorescence. (see more at URL: http://www.chelsea.co.uk/Instruments%20FASTtracka.htm) For example, a Chelsea FASTtracka CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) device can be configured with additional sensors to measure fluorescence and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the water column. Fluorescence data collected by the CTD are subsequently calibrated and corrected to give the average concentration of chlorophyll a in the water column. The Chelsea system can be configured as part of a towed package or in a shipboard pumping system. (see more from Chelsea Instruments, Molesey, Surrey, United Kingdom at URL: http://www.chelsea.co.uk/

D&A Instruments Optical Backscatter Sensor OBS-3 OBS-3

Optical backscatter instrument measuring scattering in water between 140 - 160 deg for a wavelength of 875nm. It has a turbidity range of 0-2000 FTU and a maximum working depth of 500m. This instrument was superseded by the OBS-3+ model in 2005. The D and A Instrument Company and its OBS product line were purchased by Campbell Scientific Inc who now has full responsibility for D and A Instruments.

Deep Submersible Incubation Device Deep-SID

No description has been provided for the Deep Submersible Incubation Device (Deep-SID). The device is capable of collecting a 4 liter sample that can then be pushed to 8 subsample chambers that can contain a fixative. The Deep-SID was used by Dr. Joan Bernhard to conduct in situ grazing experiments during AT18-14.

Deep-Sea Current Meter and Larval Trap Mooring SEEPC mooring

The Deep-Sea Current Meter and Larval Trap Mooring is a seafloor anchored mooring equipped to collect sediment/invertebrate larva, and record deep-sea ocean current and acoustical data.

Instruments on the mooring have included sediment traps and a Falmouth Scientific Inc. Acoustic Current Meter with vector-averaged current speed and direction.

density meter density meter

Portable or bench-top instruments to measure density of liquids. [lab]

 

Dissolved Oxygen Sensor Dissolved Oxygen Sensor

An electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analyzed

Drifter Buoy BDFT

Drifter buoy to include the Beardsley Drifter. Generic drifter buoys may be surface or sub-surface buoys that move with the current. They have a variety of instruments attached, providing a platform that allows for the measurement of surface drifts, air pressure and other variables. The Beardsley Drifters are near-surface satellite-tracked drifters used for observations of circulation patterns. They are WOCE-style drifters featuring holey sock drogues. Each drifter has a small (~ 30 cm diameter) surface float with ARGOS transmitter and batteries tethered to a holey sock drogue centered at 15 m below the surface. The drogue, about 10 m tall and 1 m in diameter, is designed to "lock" itself to the water so that the surface float follows the mean water motion at 15 m depth with very little slippage even in high winds. Thus measuring the drifter's position as a function of time provides a Lagrangian measurement of the 15-m ocean current. (http://globec.whoi.edu/jg/info/globec/soglobec/drifters_argos%7Bdir=glob...?) WOCE-drifters: http://woce.nodc.noaa.gov/wdiu/diu_summaries/svp/index.htm

Druck PDCR 4020 pressure sensor Druck PDCR 4020

The PDCR 4000 Series provides a complete range of mV output pressure transducers offering advanced levels of measurement accuracy stability and flexibility from a standard production device.

Echo sounder - single-beam Echo Sounder SB

A single-beam echo sounder is an instrument that measures water depth at a single point below the platform by timing pulses of sound reflected on the seafloor. The echo sounder transmits and receives sound, accurately measuring the time it takes to leave the sounder, reach the bottom and return to the sounder. It then converts this information into digital or graphic representations of the bottom depth and relief.
The average echo sounder consists of a transmission and reception unit that sends sound signals through the water, receives and decodes information and converts that information into either a graphic or visual form. Attached to the receiver is a transducer that acts as a microphone and a speaker under the water. Sound waves travel at approximately 1500 m/s through the water dependent on water temperature". more from LMS Technologies

Electronic Jig Machine eJig

An electronic jig machine is used to mechanically jig a fish hook or lure with a bait casting reel without using the fishing rod to jig the lure. Normally to jig a fish hook or lure one must move the fishing rod either vertically, horizontally, or jerk the fishing line by hand. The jigging action of this bait cast reel (how rapid and how long in distance the jig will travel) will determine the desired intensity and resonance of the rattle used in the lure to attract or snag the fish. With very simple controls, the equipment functions automatically since it is programmed to suit the actual fishing area, the fishing method and the type of fish.

Electrophoresis Chamber General term for an apparatus used in clinical and research laboratories to separate charged colloidal particles (or molecules) of varying size through a medium by applying an electric field.
Eppley Longwave Radiometer Eppley PIR

The Eppley Precision Infrared Radiometer (PIR) pyrgeometer measures longwave (infrared) radiation. It is housed in a weatherproof titanium canister that has been painted with a very flat black paint that absorbs radiation. A small glass dome at the top of the instrument is covered with an 'interference coating' which allows only infrared radiation to come through. Light levels are detected as temperature changes creating voltages in fine wire coil detectors. more from Eppley Labs

EPSONDE EPSONDE

An EPSONDE is a tethered free-fall profiling system used to obtain temperature microstructure and velocity turbulence data in the water column. The EPSONDE profiler carries a variety of slow and fast sensors for measuring temperature microstructure, velocity microstructure, conductivity and depth. These data yield turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates and temperature variance dissipation rates as well as derived quantities such as turbulent diffusivity.

Equilibrator Inlet Mass Spectrometer EIMS

Anal Chem. 2009 Mar 1;81(5):1855-64. doi: 10.1021/ac802300u.
Continuous high-frequency dissolved O2/Ar measurements by equilibrator inlet mass spectrometry.

Cassar N, Barnett BA, Bender ML, Kaiser J, Hamme RC, Tilbrook B.

Source:

Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA. ncassar@princeton.edu



Abstract

The oxygen (O(2)) concentration in the surface ocean is influenced by biological and physical processes. With concurrent measurements of argon (Ar), which has similar solubility properties as oxygen, we can remove the physical contribution to O(2) supersaturation and determine the biological oxygen supersaturation. Biological O(2) supersaturation in the surface ocean reflects the net metabolic balance between photosynthesis and respiration, i.e., the net community productivity (NCP). We present a new method for continuous shipboard measurements of O(2)/Ar by equilibrator inlet mass spectrometry (EIMS). From these measurements and an appropriate gas exchange parametrization, NCP can be estimated at high spatial and temporal resolution. In the EIMS configuration, seawater from the ship's continuous intake flows through a cartridge enclosing a gas-permeable microporous membrane contactor. Gases in the headspace of the cartridge equilibrate with dissolved gases in the flowing seawater. A fused-silica capillary continuously samples headspace gases, and the O(2)/Ar ratio is measured by mass spectrometry. The ion current measurements on the mass spectrometer reflect the partial pressures of dissolved gases in the water flowing through the equilibrator. Calibration of the O(2)/Ar ion current ratio (32/40) is performed automatically every 2 h by sampling ambient air through a second capillary. A conceptual model demonstrates that the ratio of gases reaching the mass spectrometer is dependent on several parameters, such as the differences in molecular diffusivities and solubilities of the gases. Laboratory experiments and field observations performed by EIMS are discussed. We also present preliminary evidence that other gas measurements, such as N(2)/Ar and pCO(2) measurements, may potentially be performed with EIMS. Finally, we compare the characteristics of the EIMS with the previously described membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) approach.



PMID:

19193192

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Expendable Bathythermograph XBT

An XBT is an expendable free-fall temperature probe that provides a profile of measured temperature against depth calculated from a fall-rate model. For example, two popular XBT models are the T-5 and T-7 probes from Sippican. More information is available from Lockheed Martin Sippican at URL: http://www.sippican.com/.

Expendable Bathythermograph - aircraft aXBT

An aXBT is an Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT) designed to be launched from an aircraft (often a P3 type aircraft) as opposed to a ship. The aXBT collects data in a similar fashion to an XBT, and once the probe hit the sea surface, it free falls through the water column.

Expendable Sound Velocimeter XSV

An Expendable Sound Velocimeter (XSV) system consists of an expendable probe, a data processing/recording system, and a launcher and is used to obtain sound velocity profiles. more from Sippican at URL: http://www.sippican.com/contentmgr/showdetails.php/id/312

Fast Repetition Rate Fluorometer FRRf

An FRRf is used for measuring the fluorescence of a sample of phytoplankton photosynthetic competency (Fv/Fm).

Fish Cage Fish Cage

Used to catch fish.

Fishing Rod Fishing Rod

Used to catch fish.

Floating Pound Net Floating Pound Net

Pound nets are passive, stationary gear used for live entrapment of fish species. The gear is composed of fiber netting. Floating pound nets use floating toggles and buoys at the surface and are held taught below the surface using anchors.


A pound net consists of: (1) a net body or crib where the entrapment takes place, (2) a least one mesh heart that helps funnel fish into the crib, and (3) a straight leader or hedging which leads fish toward the crib. Fish swimming along the shore are turned toward the crib by the hedging, guided into the heart, and into the crib where they are removed.



(Description from Maryland Dept of Natural Resources)

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