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There were no cruises associated directly with the US JGOFS SMP. The SMP deployment refers to the project being deployed.
The Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) was an international scientific
program devoted to the study of the ocean biogeochemistry of carbon and
related elements and the linkages of the ocean with the global carbon cycle.
The U.S. JGOFS program involved a decade long, intensive
field effort that included: two on-going time-series stations off Hawaii
and Bermuda; a series of process studies in the North Atlantic, Equatorial
Pacific, Arabian Sea, and Southern Ocean; and a Global Ocean CO2
Survey in conjunction with the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE).
The resulting ocean biogeochemical data sets,
together with satellite ocean color data from the NASA
Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), formed a unique, long-term
resource for the ocean community. With the completion of the field
phase in the late 1990s, the U.S. JGOFS initiated a final Synthesis and Modeling Project (SMP), to build on and integrate these data sets in order to address
the key scientific themes of JGOFS:
Specifically, the central objective of the SMP was to synthesize knowledge gained from U.S. JGOFS and related studies into a set of models to reflect the current understanding of the ocean carbon cycle and its
associated uncertainties (U.S. JGOFS, 1997). The SMP was tasked to address not only the processes that control carbon partitioning among oceanic reservoirs, but also the implications for ocean/atmosphere carbon
exchange. Both data synthesis and modeling proposals were encouraged with an emphasis on coordinated interaction between the two. The major elements of the program included:
The SMP became a full fledged program with the funding of the first SMP awards in early 1998. Funding for SMP grants was provided by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautical and Space
Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and Department of Energy (DOE).
Specific projects within the SMP fell into two broad categories: data synthesis and extrapolation, and modeling. There was considerable (and necessary)
overlap between the two, and the overview of the projects provided below is certainly a simplification of the collective efforts of the individual
researchers (details on individual SMP grants can be found at http://usjgofs.whoi.edu/mzweb/syn-mod.htm).
The scope and balance of the SMP was based on geographic region of study and investigation of biogeochemical processes.
The U.S. JGOFS SMP continued through the 2003-2004 time frame. As the program matured and specific
initial projects were completed, the foci for the program was refined to emphasize both emerging new scientific directions and remaining unfinished
elements of the original implementation plan. The SMP together with the U.S. JGOFS Steering Committee periodically assessed the program with regard to future priorities. During the active research phase, these are some of the topics identified as filling critical gaps for SMP science:
At the local to regional scale, a series of data synthesis and food
web modeling investigations explored aspects of euphotic zone production,
recycling, export, transport and remineralization, and sediment cycling
using the JGOFS process and time-series data base and related data sets.
Individual projects concentrated, for example, on subsets of the overall
JGOFS data (e.g. bacteria, mesozooplankton, HPLC pigments). Related
projects focused on the distribution and dynamics of planktonic functional
groups (e.g. N2 fixers, diatoms, calcifiers). The eventual
aim of many of these food web related studies was to extrapolate the findings
to basin and global scale and/or to develop improved process-based parameterizations
that could be incorporated into regional and global models.
One or more regional ecosystem modeling studies were undertaken for each
of the following U.S. process/time-series study locations: Equatorial Pacific
and Atlantic, Arabian Sea, Ross Sea, Bermuda, and North Atlantic.
Additionally, there were four projects which concentrated on data synthesis
and/or modeling for various continental margins: NW Atlantic margin, southern
Caribbean, Cariaco Basin, and several coastal upwelling regions.
The regional synthesis and modeling studies as well as some of the food
web projects relied heavily on satellite data. Many SMP projects utilized
satellite data, in particular SeaWiFS ocean color, as an
integral part of both model evaluation and time/space extrapolation.
On the global perspective, over a dozen synthesis groups worked
on the JGOFS/WOCE global CO2 survey data with good coverage
for all of the carbon related parameters (DIC, alkalinity, 13C,
14C, nutrients, oxygen, pCO2, etc.). A coordinated
global biogeochemical modeling effort was initiated as part of the international
Ocean Carbon Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP, http://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/OCMIP/).
As the name implies, this was an observation-based evaluation of some thirteen
global ocean biogeochemical models of the natural and anthropogenic inorganic
carbon system, biogeochemical fields (nutrients, oxygen), and related passive
chemical tracers (e.g. CFCs, 14C, 3He).
Ocean Carbon & Biogeochemistry (OCB) North American Carbon Program (NACP) Coastal Synthesis
Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office.
Funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation