Sea Ice data from ARSV Laurence M. Gould and RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer cruises LMG0106, LMG0205, NBP0104, and NBP0204 in the Southern Ocean from 2001-2002 (SOGLOBEC project; Sea Ice Microbes project)

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/2377
Data Type: Cruise Results
Version: 1
Version Date: 2003-02-11

Project
» U.S. GLOBEC Southern Ocean (SOGLOBEC)
» GLOBEC: Sea Ice Microbial Communities (Sea Ice Microbes)

Programs
» U.S. GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics (U.S. GLOBEC)
» U.S. GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics (U.S. GLOBEC)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Fritsen, Chris H.Desert Research Institute (DRI)Principal Investigator
Allison, DickyWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

Abstract
Sea Ice data from ARSV Laurence M. Gould and RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer cruises LMG0106, LMG0205, NBP0104, and NBP0204 in the Southern Ocean from 2001-2002 (SOGLOBEC project; Sea Ice Microbes project)


Coverage

Spatial Extent: N:67 E:63.917 S:-69.25 W:-76.85
Temporal Extent: 2001-07-27 - 2002-09-15

Dataset Description

Sea Ice Observations during Southern Ocean GLOBEC

Sea ice observations on the Southern Ocean GLOBEC cruises were conducted according to standardized protocols developed and utilized by members of the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate working group (co-sponsored by SCAR and GlOCHANT).

Related datasets:
ice properties, ice thickness, snow pits

More details regarding methodology can be found at http://www.scar.org/GLOCHANT/ASPeCt/seaiceobs.htm or by contacting Dr. C.H. Fritsen at cfritsen@dri.edu.

OPEN WATER (OpnWtrCode):
Code --- Description
0 --- No openings
1 --- Small cracks
2 --- Very narrow breaks, <50m
3 --- Narrow breaks, 50-200 m
4 --- Wide breaks, 200-500 m
5 --- Very wide breaks, >500 m
6 --- Lead/coastal lead
7 --- Polynya/coastal polynya
8 --- Water broken only by small scattered floes
9 --- Open sea

ICE CONCn (IceCon): to be expressed in tenths.

ICE TYPE (ITypeCode):
Code --- Description
10 --- Frazil
11 --- Shuga
12 --- Grease
20 -- Nilas
30 --- Pancakes
40 --- Young grey ice, 0.1-0.15 m
50 --- Young grey-white ice, 0.15-0.3 m
60 --- First year, 0.3-0.7 m
70 --- First year, 0.7-1.2 m
80 --- First year, >1.2 m
85 --- Multiyear floes
90 --- Brash
95 --- Fast ice

SEA ICE (IThkns) AND SNOWTHICKNESS (SnoThkns): to be expressed in centimetres.

FLOE SIZE (FloSzCode):
Code --- Description
100 --- Pancakes
200 --- New sheet ice
300 --- Brash/broken ice
400 --- Cake ice, <20 m
500 --- Small floes, 20-100 m
600 --- Medium floes, 100-500 m
700 --- Large floes, 500-2000 m
800 --- Vast floes, >2000 m

SNOW TYPE (SnoTypCode):
Code --- Description
0 --- No snow observation
1 --- No snow, no ice or brash
2 --- Cold new snow, < 1 day old
3 --- Cold old snow
4 --- Cold wind-packed snow
5 --- New melting snow (wet new snow)
6 --- Old melting snow
7 --- Glaze
8 --- Melt slush
9 --- Melt puddles
10 --- Saturated snow (waves)
11 --- Sastrugi

TOPOGRAPHY (TopoCode):
Code Description
100 Level ice
200 Rafted pancakes
300 Cemented pancakes
400 Finger rafting
5xy New, unconsolidated ridges (no snow)
6xy New ridges filled with snow or a snow cover
7xy Consolidated ridges (no weathering)
8xy Older, weathered ridges
x values Areal Coverage
0 0-10%
1 10-20%
2 20-30%
3 30-40%
4 40-50%
5 50-60%
6 60-70%
7 70-80%
8 80-90%
9 90-100%
y values Avg. Sail Height
1 0.5 m
2 1.0 m
3 1.5 m
4 2.0 m
5 3.0 m
6 4.0 m
7 5.0 m

The following weather observation codes and descriptions are from the "National Weather Service Observing Handbook No. 1", Marine Surface Weather Observations, August 1995. U.S. Department of Commerce, Silver Spring, MD.

VISIBILITY (visib):
Code --- Visibility in m/km
90 --- less than 50 m
91 --- 50 but less than 200 m
92 --- 200 but less than 500 m
93 --- 500 but less than 1000 m
94 --- > 1 but less than 2 km
95 --- > 2 but less than 4 km
96 --- > 4 but less than 10 km
97 --- > 10 but less than 20 km
98 --- > 20 but less than 50 km
99 --- > 50 km or more

TOTAL CLOUD COVER (cldcvr): to be expressed in eighths; -1 = Sky obscured by fog, snow or other met. phenom.

PRESENT WEATHER (wx):
Code Description
  Change of sky during past hour
0 Cloud development not observable
1 Clouds dissolving or becoming less developed
2 State of the sky on the whole unchanged
3 Clouds generally forming or developing
  Phenomena in past hour but not at time of obs
28 Fog (in past hour, but not at time of obs.)
   
36 Slight or moderate drifting snow, low (below eye level)
37 Heavy drifting snow, low (below eye level)
38 Slight or moderate drifting snow, high (above eye level)
39 Heavy drifting snow, high (above eye level)
  Fog at the time of observation
41 Sky visible
Fog in patches (visibility may be greater than 1/2 nm)
42 Sky visible
Fog has become thinner in past hour
43 Sky invisible
For has become thinner in past hour
44 Sky visible
Fog, no change in past hour
45 Sky invisible
Fog, no change in past hour
46 Sky visible
Fog has begun or thickened in past hour
47 Sky invisible
Fog has begun or thickened in past hour
  Drizzle
50 Intermittent
Slight drizzle
56 Slight
Freezing drizzle
  Rain (Not falling as showers)
60 Intermittent
Slight rain
  Solid precipitation not falling as showers
70 Intermittent
Slight snow in flakes
71 Continuous
Slight snow in flakes
72 Intermittent
Moderate snow in flakes
73 Continuous
Moderate snow in flakes
74 Intermittent
Heavy snow in flakes
75 Continuous
Heavy snow in flakes
76 Diamond dust (with or without fog)
77 Snow grains (with or without fog)
  Solid precipitation in showers
85 Slight
Shower of snow
86 Moderate or heavy
Shower of snow

Acquisition Description

Sea ice observations on the Southern Ocean GLOBEC cruises were conducted according to standardized protocols developed and utilized by members of the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate working group (co-sponsored by SCAR and GlOCHANT).

Routine observations of sea ice and snow characteristics were routinely collected on an hourly basis while the L.M. Gould was actively steaming throughout the cruise. These observations began on 26 July 2001 and continued through 27 August 2001. The observational protocol followed during the cruise was the protocol that is formally endorsed by the SCAR ASPeCt (Antarctic Sea ice Processes and Climate) program for observing sea ice characteristics. In short, our program (combined efforts of BG-244 as well as OG-241) was able to gather the information that will be used to characterize the predominate types of ice in the region according to parameters, such as areal coverage, floe size, ice thickness, snow type, snow thickness and deformation.


Processing Description

More details regarding methodology can be found at http://www.scar.org/GLOCHANT/ASPeCt/seaiceobs.htm or by contacting Dr. C.H. Fritsen at cfritsen@dri.edu.


[ table of contents | back to top ]

Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
month_gmtmonth in GMT time
day_gmt day of month GMT time
time_gmt time in GMT, in hours and minutes
lat latitude, decimal degrees, minus = south
lon longitude, decimal degrees, minus = west
ConT total ice concentration in tenths
OpnWtrCode open water code
TrackDistdistance along track in Km from start of ice observations
IceCon1 ice concentration in tenths
IType1Code ice type code for IceCon1
IThkns1 ice thickness code for IceCon1 in centimeters
Flo1SzCode ice floe size code for IceCon1
Topo1Code ice topography code for IceCon1
SnoTyp1Code snow type code for IceCon1
SnoThkns1 snow thickness for IceCon1 in centimeters
IceCon2 ice concentration in tenths
IType2Codeice type code for IceCon2
IThkns2ice thickness code for IceCon2 in centimeters
Flo2SzCodeice floe size code for IceCon2
Topo2Code ice topography code for IceCon2
SnoTyp2Code snow type code for IceCon2
SnoThkns2 snow thickness for IceCon2 in centimeters
IceCon3 ice concentration in tenths
IType3Codeice type code for IceCon3
IThkns3 ice thickness code for IceCon3 in centimeters
Flo3SzCode ice floe size code for IceCon3
Topo3Code ice topography code for IceCon3
SnoTyp3Codesnow type code for IceCon3
SnoThkns3snow thickness for IceCon3 in centimeters
temp water temperature, degrees centigrade
temp_air air temperature, degrees centigrade
wind_speed_kts wind speed in knots
wind_dir wind direction in degrees
frame photograph taken, PI reference ID number
visib visibility code in meters/kilometer
cldcvr total cloud cover code in eights
wx present weather code
Comments free text, PI observational notes
cruiseidcruise id unitless
year4 digit year unitless

[ table of contents | back to top ]

Deployments

LMG0106

Website
Platform
ARSV Laurence M. Gould
Report
Start Date
2001-07-21
End Date
2001-09-01
Description
Acquisition Description
Sea ice observations on the Southern Ocean GLOBEC cruises were conducted according to standardized protocols developed and utilized by members of the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate working group (co-sponsored by SCAR and GlOCHANT).

Processing Description
More details regarding methodology can be found at http://www.scar.org/GLOCHANT/ASPeCt/seaiceobs.htm">http://www.scar.org/G... or by contacting Dr. C.H. Fritsen at mailto:cfritsen@dri.edu">cfritsen@dri.edu.

LMG0205

Website
Platform
ARSV Laurence M. Gould
Report
Start Date
2002-07-29
End Date
2002-09-18
Description
Acquisition Description
Sea ice observations on the Southern Ocean GLOBEC cruises were conducted according to standardized protocols developed and utilized by members of the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate working group (co-sponsored by SCAR and GlOCHANT).

Processing Description
More details regarding methodology can be found at http://www.scar.org/GLOCHANT/ASPeCt/seaiceobs.htm">http://www.scar.org/G... or by contacting Dr. C.H. Fritsen at mailto:cfritsen@dri.edu">cfritsen@dri.edu.

NBP0104

Website
Platform
RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer
Report
Start Date
2001-07-22
End Date
2001-08-31
Description
Acquisition Description
Sea ice observations on the Southern Ocean GLOBEC cruises were conducted according to standardized protocols developed and utilized by members of the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate working group (co-sponsored by SCAR and GlOCHANT).

Processing Description
More details regarding methodology can be found at http://www.scar.org/GLOCHANT/ASPeCt/seaiceobs.htm">http://www.scar.org/G... or by contacting Dr. C.H. Fritsen at mailto:cfritsen@dri.edu">cfritsen@dri.edu.

NBP0204

Website
Platform
RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer
Report
Start Date
2002-07-31
End Date
2002-09-18
Description
Also see NBP0204 Cruise Data Report

Acquisition Description
Sea ice observations on the Southern Ocean GLOBEC cruises were conducted according to standardized protocols developed and utilized by members of the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate working group (co-sponsored by SCAR and GlOCHANT).

Processing Description
More details regarding methodology can be found at http://www.scar.org/GLOCHANT/ASPeCt/seaiceobs.htm">http://www.scar.org/G... or by contacting Dr. C.H. Fritsen at mailto:cfritsen@dri.edu">cfritsen@dri.edu.


[ table of contents | back to top ]

Project Information

U.S. GLOBEC Southern Ocean (SOGLOBEC)


Coverage: Southern Ocean


The fundamental objectives of United States Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (U.S. GLOBEC) Program are dependent upon the cooperation of scientists from several disciplines. Physicists, biologists, and chemists must make use of data collected during U.S. GLOBEC field programs to further our understanding of the interplay of physics, biology, and chemistry. Our objectives require quantitative analysis of interdisciplinary data sets and, therefore, data must be exchanged between researchers. To extract the full scientific value, data must be made available to the scientific community on a timely basis.


GLOBEC: Sea Ice Microbial Communities (Sea Ice Microbes)

Coverage: Southern Ocean


The U.S. Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (U.S. GLOBEC) program has the goal of understanding and ultimately predicting how populations of marine animal species respond to natural and anthropogenic changes in climate. Research in the Southern Ocean (SO) indicates strong coupling between climatic processes and ecosystem dynamics via the annual formation and destruction of sea ice. The Southern Ocean GLOBEC Program (SO GLOBEC) will investigate the dynamic relationship between physical processes and ecosystem responses through identification of critical parameters that affect the distribution, abundance and population dynamics of target species. The overall goals of the SO GLOBEC program are to elucidate shelf circulation processes and their effect on sea ice formation and krill distribution, and to examine the factors which govern krill survivorship and availability to higher trophic levels, including penguins, seals and whales. The focus of the U.S. contribution to the international SO GLOBEC program will be on winter processes. This component will focus on the distribution and activities of sea ice microbial communities. This will be accomplished using an integrated combination of sampling (vertical profiles, horizontal surveys, and under-ice surveys) and observational protocols. Experiments will be designed to estimate microbial activity within the sea ice and at the ice-seawater interface. The research will be coordinated with components studying the water column productivity and the sea ice habitat. The result of the integrated SO GLOBEC program will be to improve the predictability of living marine resources, especially with respect to local and global climatic shifts.



[ table of contents | back to top ]

Program Information

U.S. GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics (U.S. GLOBEC)


Coverage: Global


U.S. GLOBEC (GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics) is a research program organized by oceanographers and fisheries scientists to address the question of how global climate change may affect the abundance and production of animals in the sea.

The U.S. GLOBEC Program currently had major research efforts underway in the Georges Bank / Northwest Atlantic Region, and the Northeast Pacific (with components in the California Current and in the Coastal Gulf of Alaska). U.S. GLOBEC was a major contributor to International GLOBEC efforts in the Southern Ocean and Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP).


U.S. GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics (U.S. GLOBEC)


Coverage: Global


U.S. GLOBEC (GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics) is a research program organized by oceanographers and fisheries scientists to address the question of how global climate change may affect the abundance and production of animals in the sea.

The U.S. GLOBEC Program currently had major research efforts underway in the Georges Bank / Northwest Atlantic Region, and the Northeast Pacific (with components in the California Current and in the Coastal Gulf of Alaska). U.S. GLOBEC was a major contributor to International GLOBEC efforts in the Southern Ocean and Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP).



[ table of contents | back to top ]

Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Antarctic Sciences (NSF ANT)

[ table of contents | back to top ]