Niskin bottle data from R/V Kilo Moana, R/V Roger Revelle cruises KM0414, ZHNG09RR from the Hawaiian Islands HOT Site, NW SubArctic Pacific Ocean K2 Site, 2004-2005 (VERTIGO project)

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/2969
Version: 05 September 2006
Version Date: 2006-09-05

Project
» VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO)

Program
» Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Siegel, DavidUniversity of California-Santa Barbara (UCSB-ICESS)Principal Investigator
Chandler, Cynthia L.Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager


Dataset Description

Niskin Bottle Data


Acquisition Description

see cruise specific documentation


Processing Description

see cruise specific documentation


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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
eventunique sampling event number composite of date and time (GMT) YYyday_hhmm
date_HSTdate sampling began (local HST) YYYYMMDD
time_HSTtime sampling began (local HST) hhmm
lonlongitude, negative denotes West decimal degrees
latlatitude, negative denotes South decimal degrees
castCTD cast number dimensionless
botNiskin bottle number dimensionless
presspressure, from CTD decibars
depthdepth; calculated from pressure meters
temptemperature, from CTD, ITS-90 degrees Celsius
potemppotential temperature, ITS-90 degrees Celsius
salsalinity, from CTD, PSS-78 (PSU) dimensionless
sigma_0sigma-theta (potential density) kg/meter^3
O2_umol_kgoxygen, dissolved umol/kg
fluorfluorescence, uncalibrated voltage
turbturbidity, Seapoint voltage
datesampling date (GMT) YYYYMMDD
timesampling time (GMT) hhmm
T_locallocal time (GMT +11) hhmm
Pmaxmaximum pressure recorded decibars
O2_satPoxygen saturation percent
transtransmissivity voltage
PICParticulate Inorganic Carbon as measured by transmissometer voltage
PARPhotosynthetically Available Radiation (or SPAR ?? see .cnv headers) voltage


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Niskin bottle
Generic Instrument Name
Niskin bottle
Generic Instrument Description
A Niskin bottle (a next generation water sampler based on the Nansen bottle) is a cylindrical, non-metallic water collection device with stoppers at both ends. The bottles can be attached individually on a hydrowire or deployed in 12, 24, or 36 bottle Rosette systems mounted on a frame and combined with a CTD. Niskin bottles are used to collect discrete water samples for a range of measurements including pigments, nutrients, plankton, etc.


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Deployments

KM0414

Website
Platform
R/V Kilo Moana
Start Date
2004-06-20
End Date
2004-07-10
Description
VERTIGO project expedition to the U.S. Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) site, near the deep-water Station ALOHA (A Long-Term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment; 22° 45'N, 158° 00'W) located 100 km north of Oahu, Hawaii. Funded by: NSF OCE-0301139 Related information: VERTIGO cruise information from the VERTIGO Project site: https://cafethorium.whoi.edu/projects/vertigo/vertigo-hi/ HOT Web site: https://hahana.soest.hawaii.edu/index.html Original cruise data are available from the NSF R2R data catalog: http://www.rvdata.us/catalog/KM0414

Acquisition Description
Methodology Change history: YYMMDD 050712: added to OCB database; Cyndy Chandler (cchandler@whoi.edu), OCB CDMO 060905: corrected HST time for CTD event 04185_1421 (per Chief Scientist request) DMO note: As of January 2006, optics data are still raw voltages, and have not yet been compared with in-situ data. The data should be used by others with caution until finalized. oxygen units reported as 0Mm/KG, assume umol/kg sigma-theta units not reported, assume kg/m^3

ZHNG09RR

Website
Platform
R/V Roger Revelle
Start Date
2005-07-21
End Date
2005-08-27
Description
VERTIGO 2005 expedition to the K2site in the NW Pacific near 45° N and 160° E Funded by: NSF OCE-0301139 Cruise information from the VERTIGO project site: https://cafethorium.whoi.edu/projects/vertigo/vertigo-k2/ Original cruise data for the Revelle are available from the NSF R2R data catalog: http://www.rvdata.us/catalog/ZHNG09RR

Acquisition Description
Methodology Change history: YYMMDD 060123: Added by Cyndy Chandler (cchandler@whoi.edu), OCB CDMO 060905: remove O2, T, C and derived params from station 20 per Chief Scientist request; sensor caps left on during deployment DMO note: event, date, time, latitude and longitude are from the CTD cast NMEA header lines; T_local (local time at study area) was computed by adjusting GMT time by +11 As of January 2006, oxygen, fluorescence, turbidity, transmissivity and PAR had not yet been compared with in-situ data and should be used by others with caution until finalized. PIC sensor: voltage 0 - 5: WET Labs PIC 001 (4th build) POC sensor: voltage 0 - 5: WET Labs CST-DR 391 - tranmsissometer scattering sensor: voltage 0 - 5: Seapoint scattering sensor


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Project Information

VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO)


Coverage: HOT site and subarctic NW Pacific


NSF Award Abstract:
In this study, researchers at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, University of California - Santa Cruz, University of California - Santa Barbara, University of Tasmania, and NIWA-Australia will work collaboratively to answer a difficult question in marine biogeochemistry: What controls the efficiency of particle transport between the surface and deep ocean? More specifically, what is the fate of sinking particles leaving the upper ocean and what factors influence remineralization length scales for different sinking particle classes? Knowing the efficiency of particle transport is important for an accurate assessment of the ocean carbon sink. Globally, the magnitude and efficiency of the biological pump will in part modulate levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

The research team intends to test two basic hypotheses about remineralization control, namely: (1) particle source characteristics are the dominant control on the efficiency of particle transport; and/or that (2) mid-water processing, either by zooplankton or bacteria, controls transport efficiency. To do so, they will conduct process studies at sea focused on particle flux and composition changes in the upper 500-1000m of the ocean. The basic approach is to examine changes in particle composition and flux with depth within a given source region using a combination of approaches, many of which are new to the field. These include neutrally buoyant sediment traps, particle pumps, settling columns and respiration chambers, along with the development of new biological and geochemical tools for an integrated biogeochemical assessment of the biological pump. Two sites will be studied extensively on three-week process study cruises: the Hawaii Ocean Time-series site (HOT) and a new moored time-series site in the subarctic NW Pacific (Japanese site K2; 47oN 160oE). There are strong contrasts between these sites in rates of production, export, particle composition and expected remineralization length scales.

Evidence for variability in the flux vs. depth relationship of sinking particles is not in dispute, but the controls on particle transport efficiency through the twilight zone remain poorly understood. A lack of reliable flux and particle characterization data within the twilight zone has hampered our ability to make progress in this area, and no single approach is likely to resolve these issues. The proposed study will apply quantitative modeling to determine the net effects of the individual particle processes on the effective transport of carbon and other elements and to place the shipboard observations in the context of spatial and temporal variations in these processes

Besides the obvious contributions to the study of the oceanic and planetary carbon cycles, there are broader outcomes and impacts forthcoming from this project. Graduate and undergraduate students will be included in all aspects of the research, and the involvement of non-US PIs will encourage exchange of students and post-docs between labs in different countries. In addition, the component groups will continue to maintain science web sites designed for both public and scientific exchange where the broader and specific goals and outcomes of this work can be communicated.

Original PI-provided project description:
The main goal of VERTIGO is the investigation of the mechanisms that control the efficiency of particle transport through the mesopelagic portion of the water column.

Question: What controls the efficiency of particle transport between the surface and deep ocean? More specifically, what is the fate of sinking particles leaving the upper ocean and what factors influence remineralization length scales for different sinking particle classes? VERTIGO researchers have set out to test two basic hypotheses regarding remineralization control, namely:
1. particle source characteristics are the dominant control on the efficiency of particle transport; and/or that
2. mid-water processing, either by zooplankton or bacteria, controls transport efficiency.

To test their hypotheses, they will conduct process studies in the field focused on particle flux and composition changes in the upper 500-1000m of the ocean. The basic approach is to examine changes in particle composition and flux with depth within a given source region using a combination of approaches, many of which are new to the field. These include neutrally buoyant sediment traps, particle pumps, settling columns and respiration chambers, along with the development of new biological and geochemical tools for an integrated biogeochemical assessment of the biological pump. Three week process study cruises have been planned at two sites - the Hawaii Ocean Time-series site (HOT) and a new moored time-series site in the subarctic NW Pacific (Japanese site K2; 47oN 160oE) - where there are strong contrasts in rates of production, export, particle composition and expected remineralization length scales.

Evidence for variability in the flux vs. depth relationship of sinking particles is not in dispute but the controls on particle transport efficiency through the twilight zone remain poorly understood. A lack of reliable flux and particle characterization data within the twilight zone has hampered our ability to make progress in this area, and no single approach is likely to resolve these issues. The proposed study will apply quantitative modeling to determine the net effects of the individual particle processes on the effective transport of carbon and other elements, and to place the shipboard observations in the context of spatial and temporal variations in these processes. For rapid progress in this area, we have organized this effort as a group proposal taking advantage of expertise in the US and international community.

The efficiency of particle transport is important for an accurate assessment of the ocean C sink. Globally, the magnitude and efficiency of the biological pump will in part modulate levels of atmospheric CO2. We maintain that to understand present day ocean C sequestration and to evaluate potential strategies for enhancing sequestration, we need to assess possible changes in the efficiency of particle transport due to climate variability or via purposeful manipulations of C uptake, such as via iron fertilization.

VERTIGO Acknowledgments: (from K.O. Buesseler, et al / Deep-Sea Research II 55 (2008) 1522-1539) We thank the officers, crew and shore-based support teams for the R/V Kilo Moana (2004) and R/V Roger Revelle (2005). Funding for VERTIGO was provided primarily by research grants from the US National Science Foundation Programs in Chemical and Biological Oceanography (KOB, CHL, MWS, DKS, DAS). Additional US and non-US grants included: US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program (JKBB); the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (DMK); the Australian Cooperative Research Centre program and Australian Antarctic Division (TWT); Chinese NSFC and MOST programs (NZJ); Research Foundation Flanders and Vrije Universiteit Brussel (FD, ME); JAMSTEC (MCH); New Zealand Public Good Science Foundation (PWB); and internal WHOI sources and a contribution from the John Aure and Cathryn Ann Hansen Buesseler Foundation (KOB). A number of individuals at sea and on shore, helped make the VERTIGO project a success, including: J. Andrews, C. Bertrand, R. Bidigare III, S. Bray, K. Casciotti, M. Charette, R. Condon, J. Cope, E. Fields, M. Gall, M. Gonneea, P. Henderson, T. Kobari, D. Kunz, S. Saitoh, S. Manganini, C. Moy, S. Okamoto, S. Pike, L. Robertson, D. Ruddick and Y. Zhang. Suggestions by three anonymous reviewers and help by the editor, R. Lampitt, are also greatly appreciated.



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Program Information

Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB)


Coverage: Global


The Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program focuses on the ocean's role as a component of the global Earth system, bringing together research in geochemistry, ocean physics, and ecology that inform on and advance our understanding of ocean biogeochemistry. The overall program goals are to promote, plan, and coordinate collaborative, multidisciplinary research opportunities within the U.S. research community and with international partners. Important OCB-related activities currently include: the Ocean Carbon and Climate Change (OCCC) and the North American Carbon Program (NACP); U.S. contributions to IMBER, SOLAS, CARBOOCEAN; and numerous U.S. single-investigator and medium-size research projects funded by U.S. federal agencies including NASA, NOAA, and NSF.

The scientific mission of OCB is to study the evolving role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle, in the face of environmental variability and change through studies of marine biogeochemical cycles and associated ecosystems.

The overarching OCB science themes include improved understanding and prediction of: 1) oceanic uptake and release of atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases and 2) environmental sensitivities of biogeochemical cycles, marine ecosystems, and interactions between the two.

The OCB Research Priorities (updated January 2012) include: ocean acidification; terrestrial/coastal carbon fluxes and exchanges; climate sensitivities of and change in ecosystem structure and associated impacts on biogeochemical cycles; mesopelagic ecological and biogeochemical interactions; benthic-pelagic feedbacks on biogeochemical cycles; ocean carbon uptake and storage; and expanding low-oxygen conditions in the coastal and open oceans.



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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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