|Lawson, Gareth||Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)||Principal Investigator|
|Wiebe, Peter H.||Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)||Co-Principal Investigator|
|Copley, Nancy||Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)||BCO-DMO Data Manager|
Hand-written MOC-1 logs, screen captured images of tows, plots of temperature and salinity vs. depth, tables of net#, depth, temp, sal, volume filtered, etc., and the raw taxonomic composition of each net. (pdf)
OC473: Eighteen tows were taken on the cruise, all successfully. The first one was at Test Station 1. Sixteen were taken at strategic locations along the 3 primary sampling transect lines (Figure 9.1). Appendix 1 gives the positions, depths, and other information for each cast. One additional tow was taken at station # 32 to the west of transect 3 in Labrador Sea water.
The MOCNESS was equipped with eight 150-um mesh nets (nets 1-8; borrowed from URI) and one 333-um mesh net (net 0). The underwater unit used was #169. In addition to the standard temperature and conductivity probes the system also had a beta-type strobe-light unit for reducing avoidance of the nets by some zooplankton and possibly small fish. The strobe system has two units each with 12 LED sets (LUXEON Rebel LED) with peak output between 490-520 nm. Seven of the 24 LED sets were no longer working at the start of the sampling. The LEDs are powered by the MOCNESS battery and their pulse width, amplitude, flash rate period, and on/off are controlled by the MOCNESS software. For this cruise the pulse width was 2 ms, the relative amplitude was 99%, and the flash interval was 100 ms.
Like the CTD, the MOCNESS was deployed from the starboard side hydroboom, but using the COM-15 oceanographic winch. Between casts it was laid down on its back on a galvanized steel stanchion installed for this purpose and tied down with ratchet straps. Having it lie on its back made cocking it very straightforward. For deployment, we used two slip-lines, one tied down to the same forward eye bolt/cleat used for the CTD and strung through the port side bottom I-beam U-bolt, and the other tied to the rail and strung through the starboard side bottom I-beam U-bolt. The system was first stood up then maneuvered such that it stood half-way out the gate; the nets were then thrown over the side in order (0 through 8), making sure to walk the forward end around the aft end of the gate to prevent the net from being snagged and torn. For recovery we use the forward air-tugger and a snap hook through the port side U-bolt and a snap hook on a line to the rail for the starboard side U-bolt. Like with the CTD, two people tended the sliplines while a third tended the conducting cable for the other oceanographic winch (attached to the CTD). In the course of recovery the system was again positioned half-way out the gate, allowing each net to be hauled on board, again making sure to avoid snagging any net on the edge of the gate. The nets were all hosed down with seawater with the system standing in this position. As each net was rinsed down the cod-ends were sequentially removed, placed in numbered buckets with two frozen cooler-packs, and transferred to the wet lab. Following this process, the system was then laid back down into the stanchion.
Oblique casts with the MOCNESS were made to 1000m with a ship speed nominally of 2 kts. Generally sampling was from 1000-800, 800-600, 600-400, 400-200, 200-100, 100-50, 50-25, 25-0m, except at test station 1 where sampling with four nets at 25 m intervals took place in the upper 100 m. The downcast started with the winch paying out at 10 m/min then at ca. 50 m the rate was increased to 20 m/min, and at ca. 100m to 30-35 m/min. Between 1500 and 2100 m were paid out to get the MOCNESS to 1000 m depending on ship speed and currents. The up-cast haul-in rate was variable, depending on the vertical velocity and how much wire was out, but was generally ca. 20 m/min below 100m and then 10 m/min in the upper 100m to ensure enough water was filtered in the shallow nets.
The MOCNESS tows were done only at the day-night stations, where one daytime and one nighttime tow were performed (cruise report, Figure 9.1.1). The definitions of day and night used for both the MOCNESS and the VPR (described below in section 9.2) were:
Start: The MOCNESS needed to be at depth ready to start sampling or the VPR starting its down-cast no earlier than 1 hour after sunrise.
End: The MOCNESS needed to be at depth starting sampling or the VPR finished its downcast sampling by 2 hours before sunset.
Start: The MOCNESS needed to be at depth starting its upcast sampling or the VPR starting its downcast no earlier than 1 hour after sunset.
End: The MOCNESS needed to be at the surface finished sampling or the VPR at depth finished with its downcast sampling by an hour before sunrise.
NH1208: 26 MOCNESS tows. Please see the cruise report for details.
Samples were brought into the wet lab where sample splitting took place. One-half of a sample was preserved in 95% ethanol, ¼ was preserved in 5% buffered formalin, and ¼ was used for live viewing and picking, and then preserved in 70% ethanol. Sometimes, especially at night, the entire sample was very carefully viewed in a large white tray to find live pteropods for use in respiration experiments, for genetics studies, and for examination of the shell structure with an electron microscope. In addition, other species of copepods, salps, and euphausiids were also sorted live for flash freezing for genetics studies or for alcohol preservation for genetic barcoding for species identification. Any removed animals were noted on log sheets. Often during the day, the 'live' fraction was immediately preserved in 70% ethanol. On occasion large fish (7) had their livers removed and preserved in RNAlater (one was flash frozen) as requested by John Stegeman.
|Dataset-specific Instrument Name|| |
|Generic Instrument Name|| |
|Generic Instrument Description|| |
The Multiple Opening/Closing Net and Environmental Sensing System or MOCNESS is a family of net systems based on the Tucker Trawl principle. The MOCNESS-1 carries nine 1-m2 nets usually of 335 micrometer mesh and is intended for use with the macrozooplankton. All nets are black to reduce contrast with the background. A motor/toggle release assembly is mounted on the top portion of the frame and stainless steel cables with swaged fittings are used to attach the net bar to the toggle release. A stepping motor in a pressure compensated case filled with oil turns the escapement crankshaft of the toggle release which sequentially releases the nets to an open then closed position on command from the surface. -- from the MOCNESS Operations Manual (1999 + 2003).
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The primary objective of the proposed research is to quantify the distribution, abundance, species composition, shell condition, and vertical migratory behavior of oceanic thecosome pteropods in the northwest Atlantic and northeast Pacific, and correlate these quantities to hydrography and concurrent measurements of carbonate chemistry, including vertical and horizontal distributions of aragonite saturation. During OC473, the first cruise in the Atlantic, a combination of underway data collection and station activities will be conducted along a transect spanning 15 degrees of latitude (35° to 50° N) in the northwest Atlantic, employing six instrument packages: (1) a 1-m2 MOCNESS plankton net system; (2) a profiling Video Plankton Recorder / CTD package, including bottles for water sampling; (3) a deep (500m) towed broadband acoustic scattering system ; 94) a hull-mounted narrowband multi-frequency acoustic scattering system. It is possible that the hull mounted transducers will suffer from noise when the vessel is underway and so as a backup we will have a surface-towed sled with a backup complement of transducers; 5) an underway multi-parameter inorganic carbon analyzer and 6) a suite of chemistry-related instruments including a DIC auto-analyzer for discret bottle sample analysis, an alkalinity auto-titrator for bottle analysis and an Agilent spectrophotometer for discrete pH measurement. Supporting documentation:Cruise track image Cruise information and original data are available from the NSF R2R data catalog.
R/V New Horizon
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The primary objective of this cruise was to quantify the distribution, abundance, species composition, shell condition, and vertical migratory behavior of oceanic thecosome pteropods in the northeast Pacific, and correlate these quantities to concurrent measurements of carbonate chemistry. Underway data collection and station activities were conducted on a transect running between 35 and 50N along CLIVAR line P17N. Six instrument types were used: (1) a 1-m2 MOCNESS plankton net system and a 1-m diameter Reeve net; (2) a profiling Video Plankton Recorder mounted on the CTD package that includes a Rosette system with Niskin bottles for water sampling; (3) a deep (500 meter) towed broadband acoustic scattering system; (4) a surface narrowband multi-frequency acoustic scattering system; (5) an underway multi-parameter inorganic carbon analyzer and a GO underway pCO2 system; and (6) a suite of chemistry-related lab instruments for bottle sample analysis including a DIC auto-analyzer, an alkalinity auto-titrator, and an Agilent spectrophotometer for pH measurement. The R/V New Horizon departed from Newport OR, and set a course for the transect start point at 50N 150W. Following instrument package test deployments over the continental shelf, the transect ran in a single zig-zag between the start point and the end at 35N 135W; a total of 34 stations were sampled along the transect, every 1/2 degree of latitude. In addition 10 other stations were sampled with a Reeve net for live experimental pteropods. The science party, divided into biology and chemistry teams conducted 24-hour operations. Cruise information and original data are available from the NSF R2R data catalog.
Modified version of the NSF award abstract:
The impact of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems represents a vital question facing both marine scientists and managers of ocean resources. Thecosome pteropods are a group of calcareous planktonic molluscs widely distributed in coastal and open ocean pelagic ecosystems of the world¡¦s oceans. These animals secrete an aragonite shell, and thus are highly sensitive to ocean acidification due to the water column's changing carbonate chemistry, and particularly the shoaling of the aragonite compensation depth at which seawater becomes corrosive to aragonite. In many regions, however, relatively little is known about the abundance, distribution, vertical migratory behavior, and ecological importance of pteropods. Assessing the likely ecosystem consequences of changes in pteropod dynamics resulting from ocean acidification will require a detailed understanding of pteropod distribution and abundance relative to changing aragonite saturation in the water column.
The primary objective of this project is to quantify the distribution, abundance, species composition, shell condition, and vertical migratory behavior of oceanic thecosome pteropods in the northwest Atlantic and northeast Pacific, and correlate these quantities to hydrography and concurrent measurements of carbonate chemistry, including vertical and horizontal distributions of aragonite saturation. In particular, the project will capitalize on present-day variability in the depth distribution of aragonite saturation levels within and between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans as a "natural experiment" to address the hypotheses that pteropod vertical distribution, species composition, and abundance vary as the compensation depth becomes shallower. Secondary objectives are to develop acoustic protocols for the remote quantification of pteropod abundance for future integration into ocean acidification monitoring networks, and to characterize carbonate chemistry and nutrients along portions of two WOCE/CLIVAR Repeat Hydrography transects (A20 in the Atlantic and P17N in the Pacific) to identify decadal-scale changes in the carbonate system. These hypotheses and objectives will be addressed through two cruises along survey transects between 35 and 50 degrees North in the northwest Atlantic and northeast Pacific involving a combination of station-work and underway measurements, and a comprehensive array of instruments, including acoustic, optical, towed net, hydrographic, and carbonate chemistry sensors and sampling systems.
This highly inter-disciplinary project, combines expertise in zooplankton ecology, acoustics, and marine chemistry. The proposed work will result in a detailed baseline understanding of variability in the horizontal and vertical distribution, as well as species composition, of thecosome pteropods in the northwest Atlantic and northeast Pacific, making a key contribution to zooplankton ecology generally. In addition, by quantifying the response to current spatial variability within and between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the project will provide important information on the likely response of pteropod distribution to future changes in the vertical distribution of aragonite saturation levels, a necessary component in modeling the impacts of ocean acidification on marine ecosystem function, services, and resources.
Ocean acidification is increasingly appreciated as an urgent societal concern. Thecosome pteropods are key prey for a variety of commercially-exploited fish species, and the improved understanding the PIs seek of pteropod distribution and likely response to changing water column carbonate chemistry will have important implications for our understanding of potential effects of ocean acidification on marine resources.
NSF Climate Research Investment (CRI) activities that were initiated in 2010 are now included under Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES). SEES is a portfolio of activities that highlights NSF's unique role in helping society address the challenge(s) of achieving sustainability. Detailed information about the SEES program is available from NSF (https://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=504707).
In recognition of the need for basic research concerning the nature, extent and impact of ocean acidification on oceanic environments in the past, present and future, the goal of the SEES: OA program is to understand (a) the chemistry and physical chemistry of ocean acidification; (b) how ocean acidification interacts with processes at the organismal level; and (c) how the earth system history informs our understanding of the effects of ocean acidification on the present day and future ocean.
Solicitations issued under this program:
NSF 10-530, FY 2010-FY2011
NSF 12-500, FY 2012
NSF 12-600, FY 2013
NSF 13-586, FY 2014
NSF 13-586 was the final solicitation that will be released for this program.
1st U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting(March 22-24, 2011, Woods Hole, MA)
2nd U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting(Sept. 18-20, 2013, Washington, DC)
3rd U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting (June 9-11, 2015, Woods Hole, MA – Tentative)
NSF media releases for the Ocean Acidification Program:
Press Release 12-179 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Ocean Acidification: Finding New Answers Through National Science Foundation Research Grants - US National Science Foundation (NSF)
Press Release 14-116 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Ocean Acidification: NSF awards $11.4 million in new grants to study effects on marine ecosystems - US National Science Foundation (NSF)
The Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program focuses on the ocean's role as a component of the global Earth system, bringing together research in geochemistry, ocean physics, and ecology that inform on and advance our understanding of ocean biogeochemistry. The overall program goals are to promote, plan, and coordinate collaborative, multidisciplinary research opportunities within the U.S. research community and with international partners. Important OCB-related activities currently include: the Ocean Carbon and Climate Change (OCCC) and the North American Carbon Program (NACP); U.S. contributions to IMBER, SOLAS, CARBOOCEAN; and numerous U.S. single-investigator and medium-size research projects funded by U.S. federal agencies including NASA, NOAA, and NSF.
The scientific mission of OCB is to study the evolving role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle, in the face of environmental variability and change through studies of marine biogeochemical cycles and associated ecosystems.
The overarching OCB science themes include improved understanding and prediction of: 1) oceanic uptake and release of atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases and 2) environmental sensitivities of biogeochemical cycles, marine ecosystems, and interactions between the two.
The OCB Research Priorities (updated January 2012) include: ocean acidification; terrestrial/coastal carbon fluxes and exchanges; climate sensitivities of and change in ecosystem structure and associated impacts on biogeochemical cycles; mesopelagic ecological and biogeochemical interactions; benthic-pelagic feedbacks on biogeochemical cycles; ocean carbon uptake and storage; and expanding low-oxygen conditions in the coastal and open oceans.