Continuous pCO2 data from Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery, Netarts Bay, OR, USA in 2011 (Mechanisms of bivalve response to acidification project)

Version: 03 Dec 2014
Version Date: 2014-12-03

» A mechanistic understanding of the impacts of ocean acidification on the early life stages of marine bivalves (Mechanisms of bivalve response to acidification)

» Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES): Ocean Acidification (formerly CRI-OA) (SEES-OA)
Waldbusser, George G.Oregon State University (OSU-CEOAS)Principal Investigator
Hales, BurkeOregon State University (OSU-CEOAS)Contact
Rauch, ShannonWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

Dataset Description

Continuous PCO2 data from Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery 2011. Bandstra et al. 2006 contains information on analytical procedures and flow-through instrument design and methods in J. Vance thesis.  

For more information, refer to:
Bandstra, L., Hales, B., and Takahashi, T. 2006. High-frequency measurements of total CO2: Method development and first oceanographic observations. Marine Chemistry, 100, 24-38. doi: 10.1016/j.marchem.2005.10.009

Vance, J. 2012. Proof-of-Concept: Automated high-frequency measurements of PCO2 and TCO2 and real-time monitoring of the saturation state of calcium carbonate (Master's Thesis). Oregon State University. PDF (4.03 MB)

Acquisition Description

Sampling and Analytical methods included in Bandstra et al. 2006 and J. Vance thesis. PCO2 measured by recirculating headspace air through the sample stream collected off of the hatchery intake line and CO2 was analyzed with a nondispersive infrared detector. Analytical accuracy and precision is estimated to be less than 5%.

Processing Description

Data were collected at a sampling frequency of 1 Hz, with a data reduction to 1 minute frequency using a smoothing function developed by Dr. Hales (see contact information above).

BCO-DMO edits made:
- modified parameter names to conform with BCO-DMO naming conventions;
- calculated month, day, and time using year and julian_day values.

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month2-digit month of year. Calculated from julian_day. unitless
year4-digit year. unitless
day2-digit day of month. Calculated from julian_day. unitless
timeTime formatted as 2-digit hour, 2-digit minutes, and decimal minutes; 24-hour clock. Calculated from julian_day. unitless
julian_dayJulian day of the year. Named 'YSI_DOY' in original data file. unitless
pCO2Measured PCO2 (uatm). Named 'pCO2_Ttsg' in original data file. micro-atmospheres (uatm)
tempMeasured temperature. Named 'Ttsg' in original data file. degrees Celsius
salMeasured salinity. Named 'Stsg' in original data file. practical salinity units (PSU)

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Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery
Start Date
End Date
Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery is a commercial shellfish hatchery located in Netarts Bay, a small bay on the northern Oregon coast.

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Project Information

A mechanistic understanding of the impacts of ocean acidification on the early life stages of marine bivalves (Mechanisms of bivalve response to acidification)

Coverage: Coastal and estuarine waters of Oregon, U.S.A.

Extracted from the NSF award abstract:

The shift in the carbonate chemistry of marine waters, as a result of direct anthropogenic CO2 addition and climate-driven changes in circulation, poses a threat to many organisms. A rapidly expanding body of literature has shown that increasing levels of carbonic acid and decreasing carbonate ion levels will have deleterious effects on many marine organisms; however little is known about the mode of action of these changes in water chemistry on marine bivalves. Many marine organisms, particularly bivalves, depend critically on the production of calcium carbonate mineral, and this material becomes thermodynamically unstable under more acidic conditions. The actual mineral precipitation, however, takes place within interstitial volumes intermittently separated from ambient seawater by biological membranes. Therefore, abiotic relationships between solid phase minerals and seawater thermodynamics are oversimplified representations of the complex interplay among seawater chemistry, bivalve physiology, and shell growth processes.

In this integrative, multi-disciplinary project we will develop and apply novel experimental approaches to elucidate fundamental physiological responses to changes in seawater chemistry associated with ocean acidification. The four primary objectives of this project are to: 1) develop a novel experimental approach and system capable of unique combinations of pCO2, pH, and mineral saturation state (Ω), 2) conduct short-term exploratory experiments to determine bivalve responses to different carbonate system variables, 3) conduct longer-term directed studies of the integrated effects of different carbonate system variables over early life history of bivalves, and 4) compare these biological responses among a group of bivalve species that differ in shell mineralogy and nativity to the periodically acidified upwelling region of the Pacific Northwest coast of North America. By isolating the effects of different components of the carbonate system on the early life stages of marine bivalves, e.g. does an oyster larvae respond more strongly to pCO2 or mineral saturation state?, we can begin to identify the mechanisms behind bivalve responses as well as understand how these organisms survive in transiently corrosive conditions.

Laboratory based experiments on three primary taxa (oyster, mussel, clam) having native and non-native species pairs to Oregon’s coastal waters: oysters Ostrea lurida and Crassostrea gigas; mussels Mytilus califonianus and Mytilus galloprovincialis; and clams Macoma nasuta and Ruditapes philippinarum, will allow for species comparisons among different shell mineralogy, microstructure, life-history, and adaptability. High-precision pCO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) instruments will be used in experiments to control and properly constrain the carbonate chemistry. A compliment of response variables will be measured across the early life stages of these species that include tissue acid-base balance, shell mineralogy and chemistry, respiration rate, and behavior. Additionally, our emphasis will be placed on observation of development, growth, and shell structure by directly linking observational data with other measured response data. An adaptive strategy using short-term experiments to determine the most salient variables in the carbonate system to manipulate in longer-term studies is being employed. This approach allows us to evaluate acute effects, mimicking diurnal changes to carbonate variables often found in coastal areas, and integrated chronic effects mimicking a more gradual acidification due to the rise in atmospheric CO2.

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Program Information

Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES): Ocean Acidification (formerly CRI-OA) (SEES-OA)

Coverage: global

NSF Climate Research Investment (CRI) activities that were initiated in 2010 are now included under Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES). SEES is a portfolio of activities that highlights NSF's unique role in helping society address the challenge(s) of achieving sustainability. Detailed information about the SEES program is available from NSF (

In recognition of the need for basic research concerning the nature, extent and impact of ocean acidification on oceanic environments in the past, present and future, the goal of the SEES: OA program is to understand (a) the chemistry and physical chemistry of ocean acidification; (b) how ocean acidification interacts with processes at the organismal level; and (c) how the earth system history informs our understanding of the effects of ocean acidification on the present day and future ocean.

Solicitations issued under this program:
NSF 10-530, FY 2010-FY2011
NSF 12-500, FY 2012
NSF 12-600, FY 2013
NSF 13-586, FY 2014
NSF 13-586 was the final solicitation that will be released for this program.

PI Meetings:
1st U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting(March 22-24, 2011, Woods Hole, MA)
2nd U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting(Sept. 18-20, 2013, Washington, DC)
3rd U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting (June 9-11, 2015, Woods Hole, MA – Tentative)

NSF media releases for the Ocean Acidification Program:

Press Release 10-186 NSF Awards Grants to Study Effects of Ocean Acidification

Discovery Blue Mussels "Hang On" Along Rocky Shores: For How Long?

Discovery - National Science Foundation (NSF) Discoveries - Trouble in Paradise: Ocean Acidification This Way Comes - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 12-179 - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Ocean Acidification: Finding New Answers Through National Science Foundation Research Grants - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 13-102 World Oceans Month Brings Mixed News for Oysters

Press Release 13-108 - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Natural Underwater Springs Show How Coral Reefs Respond to Ocean Acidification - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 13-148 Ocean acidification: Making new discoveries through National Science Foundation research grants

Press Release 13-148 - Video - News - Video - NSF Ocean Sciences Division Director David Conover answers questions about ocean acidification. - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 14-010 - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Palau's coral reefs surprisingly resistant to ocean acidification - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 14-116 - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Ocean Acidification: NSF awards $11.4 million in new grants to study effects on marine ecosystems - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

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Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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