Event log from the R/V Tioga (TI787) in the Gulf of Maine during November 2014 (Gulf of Maine Pteropods project)

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/562898
Version: 2015-07-23

» Seasonal and Ontogenetic Effects of Ocean Acidification on Pteropods in the Gulf of Maine (Gulf of Maine Pteropods)

» Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES): Ocean Acidification (formerly CRI-OA) (SEES-OA)
Maas, AmyWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)Principal Investigator
Copley, NancyWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

Dataset Description

v. 2015-07-30 replaced v:2015-07-23: corrected lat/lon for event #22

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eventevent or sampling operation number unitless
instInstrument used to collect data;see: instrument list unitless
castcast number unitless
sta_stdstandard station number unitless
stationconsecutive station number unitless
yearyear YYYY
mon_localmonth of year; local time 1-12
day_localday of month; local time 1-31
time_localtime of day; local time; using 2400 clock format HHMM
time_diffThe number of hours added to local time to convert to UTC. hours
mon_utcmonth of year; UTC 1 to 12
day_utcday of month; UTC 1 to 31
time_utctime; UTC HHMM
yrday_utcUTC day and decimal time; as 326.5 for the 326th day of the year or November 22 at 1200 hours (noon). unitless
ISO_DateTime_UTCDate/Time (UTC) ISO formatted. This standard is based on ISO 8601:2004(E). e.g. 2009-08-30T14:05:00[.xx]Z (UTC time) YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS[.xx]Z
latlatitude; negative = South decimal degrees
lonlongitude; negative = West decimal degrees
se_flagsampling operation start (s) or end (e) flag unitless
depthdepth of sample meters
depth_wdepth of water meters
commentfree text comments unitless

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Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
Dataset-specific Description
The MOCNESS-1/4 was equipped with nine 150-um mesh nets (nets 0-8). The underwater unit used was #169; temperature probe was #535 and conductivity probe was #120. In addition to the standard temperature and conductivity probes the system also had a beta-type strobe-light unit for reducing avoidance of the nets by some zooplankton and possibly small fish.  The strobe system has two units each with 12 LED sets (LUXEON Rebel LED) with peak output between 490-520 nm. The LEDs are powered by the MOCNESS battery and their pulse width, amplitude, flash rate period, and on/off are controlled by the MOCNESS software. 
Generic Instrument Description
The Multiple Opening/Closing Net and Environmental Sensing System or MOCNESS is a family of net systems based on the Tucker Trawl principle. The MOCNESS-1/4 carries nine 1/4-m2 nets usually of 64 micrometer mesh and is used to sample the larger micro-zooplankton.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Reeve Net
Generic Instrument Name
Reeve Net
Dataset-specific Description
A 1-m diameter Reeve net with a 150-um mesh net was deployed via the A-frame. The book-clamp to attach the net was borrowed from Carin Asjian’s lab. Ship speed during tows was ~1-1.5 knots. The depth and duratilon of deployment varied widely. We occasionally focused on very deep (90-130) or very shallow (40-20) layers based on acoustic evidence, but had our greatest success with a tow-yo pattern that focused on depth ranges between 40-90 m (See Cruise Report, Table 1 and Appendix 4 for details).  http://bcodata.whoi.edu/GoME_Pteropods/cruise_reports/Tioga729_Cruise_Re...
Generic Instrument Description
A Reeve Net is a conventional ring net with a very large acrylic cylindrical cod-end (30 liters) designed to collect fragile gelatinous animals. The net is lowered to a particular depth and then hauled slowly back to the surface (5-10 m/min). Reeve (1981) also described a double net system with no bridle and flotation at the net mouth that is attached to a roller mechanism that rides on a tow wire. The roller system is locked in place by a pressure release device. Once below a set pressure, the roller and nets are released and they float slowly up the wire, gently collecting the zooplankton, without being influenced by the motion of the vessel and associated vertical wire movements. (from Wiebe and Benfield, 2003)

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
CTD SBE 911plus
Generic Instrument Name
CTD Sea-Bird SBE 911plus
Generic Instrument Description
The Sea-Bird SBE 911plus is a type of CTD instrument package for continuous measurement of conductivity, temperature and pressure. The SBE 911plus includes the SBE 9plus Underwater Unit and the SBE 11plus Deck Unit (for real-time readout using conductive wire) for deployment from a vessel. The combination of the SBE 9plus and SBE 11plus is called a SBE 911plus. The SBE 9plus uses Sea-Bird's standard modular temperature and conductivity sensors (SBE 3plus and SBE 4). The SBE 9plus CTD can be configured with up to eight auxiliary sensors to measure other parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, fluorescence, light (PAR), light transmission, etc.). more information from Sea-Bird Electronics

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
Dataset-specific Description
A "Little Giant" brand pump was used to retrieve water from depth for animal culture. 
Generic Instrument Description
A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps

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R/V Tioga
Start Date
End Date
Live capture of pteropod Limacina retroversa for experiments and water sampling for carbonate chemistry profile and MOCNESS tow for later analysis of pteropod community. [underway data not available at this time: 2015-07-28]

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Project Information

Seasonal and Ontogenetic Effects of Ocean Acidification on Pteropods in the Gulf of Maine (Gulf of Maine Pteropods)

Coverage: Gulf of Maine

This project will involve a series of five short cruises in 2013 and 2014, during which a variety of hydrographic, chemical, and biological data and samples will be collected, as well as a number of laboratory experiments examining pteropod physiology and gene expression.

From NSF proposal abstract:

Dissolution of excess anthropogenic CO2 into the ocean is causing the marine environment to decrease in pH. This "ocean acidification" is predicted to threaten a broad variety of marine organisms, particularly calcifying animals such as the thecosome (i.e., shelled) pteropods. These pelagic gastropods form an aragonite shell, are prey for a number of commercially important fish, and are significant contributors to carbon biogeochemistry. Their ecosystem importance, abundance, and sensitivity to dissolution position them as an important group for investigating the impacts of acidification. Our understanding of the effect of high CO2 on pteropods and the pelagic ecosystem, however, is limited primarily to short-term studies of adult calcification and respiration response in the polar ecosystems. There have been no seasonal studies of sensitivity and our understanding of the effect of CO2 on pteropod early life stages is limited. Limacina retroversa is a particularly abundant thecosome pteropod in the North Atlantic, where it is prey for a number of fisheries species and other top predators. This species is also the most common pteropod in the Gulf of Maine (GoM) where it is present year round. L. retroversa thus offers the prospect of a useful model pteropod species, given both its ecological importance and its abundance in readily accessible waters. The investigators will conduct a series of short cruises to sample L. retroversa on a seasonal basis from local waters of the GoM near Cape Cod. The carbonate chemistry of the GoM fluctuates seasonally, providing the opportunity to assess the response of wild caught pteropods to natural changes in CO2. By characterizing the carbonate chemistry of the water column and measuring the metabolic rate, shell quality, and gene expression of pteropods throughout the year, the researchers will achieve a time series of pteropod sensitivity to CO2. Subsequently, using experimental manipulations the investigators will explore the effect of seasonal acclimation on pteropod response to short- and medium-term exposure to enhanced CO2. Pteropods frequently lay eggs in captivity, and at WHOI there is institutional expertise in maintaining these individuals in the laboratory. Building on these strengths, the researchers will also study the effect of CO2 on embryonic and larval development in L. retroversa. These earliest life-stages of marine calcifiers are thought to be especially sensitive since initial shell precipitation and the highly energetic processes of growth and development are impeded by CO2 exposure. They will also document mortality, shell production, abnormality, and developmental rate of clutches of pteropod embryos exposed to increased CO2.

Intellectual Merit: Thecosome pteropods are an abundant group of calcifying zooplankters that have been chronically understudied, particularly in temperate regions. Due to its accessibility and ecological importance, L. retroversa can be developed as a valuable model, interesting both as the dominant pteropod in the commercially-important GoM region and also an abundant pteropod in the temperate waters of the North Atlantic. The goal of this research is to augment our knowledge of the distribution of L. retroversa, to attain an understanding of their seasonal sensitivity to natural variability in CO2, and to see how this exposure impacts responses to both short- and medium-term CO2 exposure. Using powerful transcriptomic technologies, the research will transform our understanding of this group by investigating the molecular mechanisms of response in L. retroversa to both seasonality and varying durations and intensities of acidification, contextualized by ecosystem- and organism-level metrics. Furthermore the study will examine the effect of CO2 on the eggs of pteropods for the first time, providing insight into their sensitivity to an acidifying environment.

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Program Information

Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES): Ocean Acidification (formerly CRI-OA) (SEES-OA)

Coverage: global

NSF Climate Research Investment (CRI) activities that were initiated in 2010 are now included under Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES). SEES is a portfolio of activities that highlights NSF's unique role in helping society address the challenge(s) of achieving sustainability. Detailed information about the SEES program is available from NSF (https://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=504707).

In recognition of the need for basic research concerning the nature, extent and impact of ocean acidification on oceanic environments in the past, present and future, the goal of the SEES: OA program is to understand (a) the chemistry and physical chemistry of ocean acidification; (b) how ocean acidification interacts with processes at the organismal level; and (c) how the earth system history informs our understanding of the effects of ocean acidification on the present day and future ocean.

Solicitations issued under this program:
NSF 10-530, FY 2010-FY2011
NSF 12-500, FY 2012
NSF 12-600, FY 2013
NSF 13-586, FY 2014
NSF 13-586 was the final solicitation that will be released for this program.

PI Meetings:
1st U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting(March 22-24, 2011, Woods Hole, MA)
2nd U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting(Sept. 18-20, 2013, Washington, DC)
3rd U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting (June 9-11, 2015, Woods Hole, MA – Tentative)

NSF media releases for the Ocean Acidification Program:

Press Release 10-186 NSF Awards Grants to Study Effects of Ocean Acidification

Discovery Blue Mussels "Hang On" Along Rocky Shores: For How Long?

Discovery nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) Discoveries - Trouble in Paradise: Ocean Acidification This Way Comes - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 12-179 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Ocean Acidification: Finding New Answers Through National Science Foundation Research Grants - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 13-102 World Oceans Month Brings Mixed News for Oysters

Press Release 13-108 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Natural Underwater Springs Show How Coral Reefs Respond to Ocean Acidification - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 13-148 Ocean acidification: Making new discoveries through National Science Foundation research grants

Press Release 13-148 - Video nsf.gov - News - Video - NSF Ocean Sciences Division Director David Conover answers questions about ocean acidification. - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 14-010 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Palau's coral reefs surprisingly resistant to ocean acidification - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 14-116 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Ocean Acidification: NSF awards $11.4 million in new grants to study effects on marine ecosystems - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

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Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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