» Does coupling between the inner shelf and surf zone regulate larval supply to intertidal populations? (Surf zone larval transport)

Contributors | Affiliation | Role |
---|---|---|

Shanks, Alan L. | University of Oregon (OIMB) | Lead Principal Investigator, Contact |

MacMahan, Jamie | Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) | Co-Principal Investigator |

Morgan, Steven | University of California-Davis (UC Davis-BML) | Co-Principal Investigator |

Reniers, Ad | Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) | Co-Principal Investigator |

Rauch, Shannon | Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO) | BCO-DMO Data Manager |

Time series of average daily zooplankton concentration in the waters offshore of Carmel River State Beach, CA (36.53833 degrees N, 121.92861 degrees W).

**Related references:**

Shanks, A.L., S. G. Morgan, J. MacMahan, Ad J.H.M Reniers, M. Jarvis, J. Brown, and C. Griesemer (2014). Onshore transport of plankton by internal tides and upwelling-relaxation events. Marine Ecology Progress Series. DOI:10.3354/meps10717

Shanks, A.L., S. G. Morgan, J. MacMahan, Ad J.H.M Reniers, M. Jarvis, J. Brown, and C. Griesemer (2015). Transport of Larvae and Detritus Across the Surf Zone of a Steep Reflective Pocket Beach. Marine Ecology Progress Series. DOI:10.3354/meps11223

Zooplankton and detritus were collected from 15 June through 15 July about 125 m offshore of the surf zone at Carmel River State Beach. Offshore samples were collected from a kayak in the morning hours before the increase in winds associated with the sea breeze. Offshore samples consisted of vertical plankton tows using a 200** **um mesh 0.25 m^{^2} net that was equipped with a flow meter to determine the volume of water filtered. Three replicate samples were collected daily by hauling the net from near the bottom to the surface. The net filtered an average of 2 m^^{3 }per tow. Samples were preserved with buffered formalin. Organisms were identified and enumerated using dissecting microscopes.

Three samples were collected each day. Counts from the microscopic analysis of the samples were converted to number per m^3 and the average and 95% confidence interval for each daily set of samples were calculated. Note that blanks in the data set represent missing data values (BCO-DMO has changed blanks to 'nd'.)

BCO-DMO Processing:

- Re-formatted date, and added separate columns for month, day, year, and year-day.

- Added column containing site name.

- Added lat and lon (from metadata form).

- Modified parameter names to conform with BCO-DMO naming conventions.

- Replaced blanks (missing data) with 'nd' to indicate 'no data'.

File |
---|

CarmelRiver_Offshore_Zoo2011.csv(Comma Separated Values (.csv), 8.28 KB) MD5:340f45885ff0edf4d25d40a3fa7df5f9 Primary data file for dataset ID 562997 |

Parameter | Description | Units |

site_name | Name of the sampling site. | text |

lat | Latitude of the sampling site. | decimal degrees |

lon | Longitude of the sampling site. | decimal degrees |

date | Month/day/year of sample collection. | mm/dd/yyyy |

Copepod | Copepod ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Copepod_95CI | Copepod 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Copepod_nauplii | Copepod Nauplii ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Copepod_nauplii_95CI | Copepod Nauplii 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Harpacticoid | Harpacticoid ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Harpacticoid_95CI | Harpacticoid 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Larvacean | Larvacean ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Larvacean_95CI | Larvacean 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Cladoceran | Cladoceran ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Cladoceran_95CI | Cladoceran 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Mysid | Mysid ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Mysid_95CI | Mysid 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Amphipod | Amphipod ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Amphipod_95CI | Amphipod 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Ctenophore | Ctenophore ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Ctenophore_95CI | Ctenophore 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Hydromedusii | Hydromedusii ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Hydromedusii_95CI | Hydromedusii 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Barnacle_stg_I_III | Barnacle stage I-III ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Barnacle_stg_I_III_95CI | Barnacle stage I-III 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Barnacle_stg_IV_VI | Barnacle stage IV-VI ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Barnacle_stg_IV_VI_95CI | Barnacle stage IV-VI 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Cyprid | Cyprid ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Cyprid_95CI | Cyprid 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Grapsid_zoea_I_III | Grapsid zoea stage I-III ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Grapsid_zoea_I_III_95CI | Grapsid zoea stage I-III 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Grapsid_zoea_IV_V | Grapsid zoea stage IV-V ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Grapsid_zoea_IV_V_95CI | Grapsid zoea stage IV-V 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Grapsid_megalopa | Grapsid megalopa ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Grapsid_megalopa_95CI | Grapsid megalopa 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Cancer_zoea_I_III | Cancer zoea stage I-III ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Cancer_zoea_I_III_95CI | Cancer zoea stage I-III 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Cancer_zoea_IV_V | Cancer zoea stage IV-V ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Cancer_zoea_IV_V_95CI | Cancer zoea stage IV-V 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Cancer_megalopa | Cancer megalopa ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Cancer_megalopa_95CI | Cancer megalopa 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Pinnotherid_zoea_I_III | Pinnotherid zoea stage I-III ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Pinnotherid_zoea_I_III_95CI | Pinnotherid zoea stage I-III 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Pinnotherid_zoea_IV_V | Pinnotherid zoea stage IV-V ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Pinnotherid_zoea_IV_V_95CI | Pinnotherid zoea stage IV-V 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Pinnotherid_megalopa | Pinnotherid megalopa ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Pinnotherid_megalopa_95CI | Pinnotherid megalopa 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Majid_zoea_I_II | Majid zoea stage I-II ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Majid_zoea_I_II_95CI | Majid zoea stage I-II 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Majid_megalopa | Majid megalopa ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Majid_megalopa_95CI | Majid megalopa 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Porcellanid_zoea_I_II | Porcellanid zoea stage I-II ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Porcellanid_zoea_I_II_95CI | Porcellanid zoea stage I-II 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Porcellanid_megalopa | Porcellanid megalopa ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Porcellanid_megalopa_95CI | Porcellanid megalopa 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Emerita_stg_I | Emerita stage I ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Emerita_stg_I_95CI | Emerita stage I 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Bivalves_veligers | Bivalves Veligers ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Bivalves_veligers_95CI | Bivalves Veligers 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Gastropod_veligers | Gastropod Veligers ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Gastropod_veligers_95CI | Gastropod Veligers 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Spionid_poly_larvae | Spionid Poly Larvae ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Spionid_poly_larvae_95CI | Spionid Poly Larvae 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Other_polychaete_larvae | Other Polychaete larvae ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Other_polychaete_larvae_95CI | Other Polychaete larvae 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Urchin_larvae | Urchin larvae ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Urchin_larvae_95CI | Urchin larvae 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

cyphonautes | Cyphonautes ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

cyphonautes_95CI | Cyphonautes 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Bopalid_isopod_larvae | Bopalid isopod larvae ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

Bopalid_isopod_larvae_95CI | Bopalid isopod larvae 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

terrestrial_bugs | Terrestrial bugs ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

terrestrial_bugs_95CI | Terrestrial bugs 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

doliolids | Doliolids ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

doliolids_95CI | Doliolids 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

detritus | Detritus ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

detritus_95CI | Detritus 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

euphasid_larvae | Euphasid larvae ave #/m^3 (mean of the 3 replicate samples). | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

euphasid_larvae_95CI | Euphasid larvae 95% confidence interval. | number per cubic meter (#/m^3) |

mon | 2-digit month of year. | mm (01 to 12) |

day | 2-digit day of month. | dd (01 to 31) |

year | 4-digit year. | YYYY |

yrday | Consecutive day of year (Jan 1st = 1) | dimensionless |

Website | |

Platform | Carmel_River_State_Beach |

Start Date | 2011-06-19 |

End Date | 2011-07-15 |

*Description from NSF award abstract:*

Many intertidal invertebrates and fishes have complex life cycles that include a planktonic larval phase. At the end of their pelagic development, larvae must return to shore and cross the surf zone. The purpose of this study is to investigate for the first time the role of surf zone hydrodynamics in the rate of delivery of cyprids of intertidal barnacles to the shore. To exploit the greater physical oceanographic understanding of the hydrodynamics of sandy beach surf zones, this initial study will focus on cyprid settlement on hard substrates in surf zones associated with sandy beaches. In the first two years of the study, the investigators will carry out an intensive two-month physical and biological study of a reflective and dissipative surf zone, respectively. At each site they will sample cyprids in the waters of the inner-shelf, just outside the surf zone, and within the surf zone and they will measure settlement on plates in the intertidal zone. At the same time they will collect physical oceanographic data with both in-situ instruments and a fleet of GPS-equipped surface drifters to describe the hydrodynamics of the surf zone. The time series of the physical and biological data will be correlated to investigate mechanisms of delivery of cyprids to the shore. To simulate the hydrodynamic processes responsible for the transport of larvae, the investigators will use a 3D model, resolving both the horizontal and vertical structure of the unsteady nearshore flow. To evaluate potential transport of larvae through the surf zone, a biological module describing the spatial distribution of the larvae will be coupled to the hydrodynamic module to predict the pathways of the larvae and compare with observations. Intensive sampling will help provide insight into the actual processes transporting cyprids from the inner shelf, through the surf zone, and to the intertidal zone. During each summer, weekly barnacle recruitment and daily cyprid settlement will be measured for two months to settlement plates at reflective and dissipative beaches in central California and southern Oregon. Population densities at many beaches along the West Coast will be surveyed each year to determine if a latitudinal gradient in wave energy is correlated with adult barnacle population densities.

Because the fundamentals of surfzone dynamics are universal, results of this research will be broadly applicable not only along the West Coast, but worldwide. This project will have significant impacts on education and public outreach. It will support three graduate students and nine undergraduate students and will create new research opportunities for students of diverse backgrounds from three undergraduate institutions, local high schools and the public. The research will be included in the curriculum of intensive hands-on courses, and undergraduates will participate in the research while learning how a real-world research project addresses fundamental questions. Both a website that highlights findings and an interactive display for visitors to the Bodega Marine Laboratory will be developed. A model coupling nearshore hydrodynamics and onshore transport across the surf zone will be made available to the community to stimulate research into this emerging research topic.

Funding Source | Award |
---|---|

NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) |

[ table of contents | back to top ]