Calcification data from the coral A. pulchra and alga L. kotschyanum under 2 pCO2 levels, 5-6 temperature treatments, and two different seasons (austral summer and spring) in 2010 (OA coral adaptation project)

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/648442
Data Type: experimental
Version:
Version Date: 2016-06-08

Project
» Collaborative Research: Ocean Acidification and Coral Reefs: Scale Dependence and Adaptive Capacity (OA coral adaptation)

Program
» Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES): Ocean Acidification (formerly CRI-OA) (SEES-OA)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Carpenter, RobertCalifornia State University Northridge (CSU-Northridge)Co-Principal Investigator
Edmunds, Peter J.California State University Northridge (CSU-Northridge)Co-Principal Investigator, Contact
Lantz, CoulsonTechnician
Copley, NancyWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager


Dataset Description

Related Reference: Comeau S, Carpenter RC, Lantz CA, Edmunds PJ. Parameterization of the response of calcification to temperature and pCO2 in the coral Acropora pulchra and the alga Lithophyllum kotschyanum. Coral Reefs 2016

Also see: Stimson J, Kinzie RA (1991) The temporal pattern and rate of release of zooxanthellae from the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) under nitrogen-enrichment and control conditions. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 153:63–74


Acquisition Description

Buoyant weights of the corals and algae were recorded at the beginning of the incubation and after 3 weeks in the treatments. The difference between the initial and final buoyant weight was converted to dry weight of skeleton using the aragonite density of 2.93 g cm-3  for A. pulchra  and calcite density of 2.71 g cm-3  for L. kotschyanum , in accordance with the mineral form of CaCO3  deposited by each taxon. Rates of net calcification were normalized to the area of organisms estimated using wax dipping (Stimson and Kinzie 1991 ).


Processing Description

To test for differences in treatment conditions in the tanks, temperature and pCO2 in the tanks were analyzed with a two-factor partially nested ANOVA in which treatment (pCO2  or temperature) was a fixed effect and tank a random nested factor.

BCO-DMO Processing:
- added conventional header with dataset name, PI name, version date, reference information
- renamed parameters to BCO-DMO standard
- added site, lab, lat, lon columns
- sorted by month, species, pCO2, tank


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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
sitelocation of experiments unitless
latlatitude; north is positive decimal degrees
lonlongitude; east is positive decimal degrees
speciesspecies name unitless
tanktank number unitless
calc_ratecalcification rate CaCO3/m^2/d^1
tempwater temperature degrees Celsius
pCO2partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2): Ambient (400 uatm) and OA (1000 uatm) micro-atmospheres
monthmonth month


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
LI-COR LI-193 PAR Sensor
Dataset-specific Description
4-pi quantum sensor LI-193 and a LiCor LI-1400 meter data logger.
Generic Instrument Description
The LI-193 Underwater Spherical Quantum Sensor uses a Silicon Photodiode and glass filters encased in a waterproof housing to measure PAR (in the 400 to 700 nm waveband) in aquatic environments. Typical output is in micromol s-1 m-2. The LI-193 Sensor gives an added dimension to underwater PAR measurements as it measures photon flux from all directions. This measurement is referred to as Photosynthetic Photon Flux Fluence Rate (PPFFR) or Quantum Scalar Irradiance. This is important, for example, when studying phytoplankton, which utilize radiation from all directions for photosynthesis. LI-COR began producing Spherical Quantum Sensors in 1979; serial numbers for the LI-193 begin with SPQA-XXXXX (licor.com).

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
pH Sensor
Dataset-specific Description
Orion 3-stars, Thermo Scientific, USA, mounted with a combination pH probe (Orion Ross Ultra, Thermo Scientific, USA)
Generic Instrument Description
General term for an instrument that measures the pH or how acidic or basic a solution is.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
Automatic titrator
Dataset-specific Description
T50, Mettler-Toledo, Switzerland
Generic Instrument Description
Instruments that incrementally add quantified aliquots of a reagent to a sample until the end-point of a chemical reaction is reached.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
Optode
Dataset-specific Description
PreSens dipping oxygen optodes (PSt3) connected to Fibox 3 transmitters (Precision Sensing GmbH, Germany).
Generic Instrument Description
An optode or optrode is an optical sensor device that optically measures a specific substance usually with the aid of a chemical transducer.


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Deployments

MCR_Edmunds

Website
Platform
Richard B Gump Research Station - Moorea LTER
Start Date
2010-01-01
End Date
2016-12-31
Description
Ongoing studies on corals


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Project Information

Collaborative Research: Ocean Acidification and Coral Reefs: Scale Dependence and Adaptive Capacity (OA coral adaptation)


Coverage: Moorea, French Polynesia


Extracted from the NSF award abstract:

This project focuses on the most serious threat to marine ecosystems, Ocean Acidification (OA), and addresses the problem in the most diverse and beautiful ecosystem on the planet, coral reefs. The research utilizes Moorea, French Polynesia as a model system, and builds from the NSF investment in the Moorea Coral Reef Long Term Ecological Research Site (LTER) to exploit physical and biological monitoring of coral reefs as a context for a program of studies focused on the ways in which OA will affect corals, calcified algae, and coral reef ecosystems. The project builds on a four-year NSF award with research in five new directions: (1) experiments of year-long duration, (2) studies of coral reefs to 20-m depth, (3) experiments in which carbon dioxide will be administered to plots of coral reef underwater, (4) measurements of the capacity of coral reef organisms to change through evolutionary and induced responses to improve their resistance to OA, and (5) application of emerging theories to couple studies of individual organisms to studies of whole coral reefs. Broader impacts will accrue through a better understanding of the ways in which OA will affect coral reefs that are the poster child for demonstrating climate change effects in the marine environment, and which provide income, food, and coastal protection to millions of people living in coastal areas, including in the United States. 

This project focuses on the effects of Ocean Acidification on tropical coral reefs and builds on a program of research results from an existing 4-year award, and closely interfaces with the technical, hardware, and information infrastructure provided through the Moorea Coral Reef (MCR) LTER. The MCR-LTER, provides an unparalleled opportunity to partner with a study of OA effects on a coral reef with a location that arguably is better instrumented and studied in more ecological detail than any other coral reef in the world. Therefore, the results can be both contextualized by a high degree of ecological and physical relevance, and readily integrated into emerging theory seeking to predict the structure and function of coral reefs in warmer and more acidic future oceans. The existing award has involved a program of study in Moorea that has focused mostly on short-term organismic and ecological responses of corals and calcified algae, experiments conducted in mesocosms and flumes, and measurements of reef-scale calcification. This new award involves three new technical advances: for the first time, experiments will be conducted of year-long duration in replicate outdoor flumes; CO2 treatments will be administered to fully intact reef ecosystems in situ using replicated underwater flumes; and replicated common garden cultivation techniques will be used to explore within-species genetic variation in the response to OA conditions. Together, these tools will be used to support research on corals and calcified algae in three thematic areas: (1) tests for long-term (1 year) effects of OA on growth, performance, and fitness, (2) tests for depth-dependent effects of OA on reef communities at 20-m depth where light regimes are attenuated compared to shallow water, and (3) tests for beneficial responses to OA through intrinsic, within-species genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity. Some of the key experiments in these thematic areas will be designed to exploit integral projection models (IPMs) to couple organism with community responses, and to support the use of the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) to address scale-dependence of OA effects on coral reef organisms and the function of the communities they build.

The following publications and data resulted from this project:

Comeau S, Carpenter RC, Lantz CA, Edmunds PJ. (2016) Parameterization of the response of calcification to temperature and pCO2 in the coral Acropora pulchra and the alga Lithophyllum kotschyanum. Coral Reefs 2016. DOI 10.1007/s00338-016-1425-0.
calcification rates (2014)
calcification rates (2010)

Comeau, S., Carpenter, R.C., Edmunds, P.J.  (2016) Effects of pCO2 on photosynthesis and respiration of tropical scleractinian corals and calcified algae. ICES Journal of Marine Science doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsv267.
respiration and photosynthesis I
respiration and photosynthesis II

Evensen, N.R. & Edmunds P. J. (2016) Interactive effects of ocean acidification and neighboring corals on the growth of Pocillopora verrucosa. Marine Biology, 163:148. doi: 10.1007/s00227-016-2921-z
coral growth
seawater chemistry
coral colony interactions



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Program Information

Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES): Ocean Acidification (formerly CRI-OA) (SEES-OA)


Coverage: global


NSF Climate Research Investment (CRI) activities that were initiated in 2010 are now included under Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES). SEES is a portfolio of activities that highlights NSF's unique role in helping society address the challenge(s) of achieving sustainability. Detailed information about the SEES program is available from NSF (https://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=504707).

In recognition of the need for basic research concerning the nature, extent and impact of ocean acidification on oceanic environments in the past, present and future, the goal of the SEES: OA program is to understand (a) the chemistry and physical chemistry of ocean acidification; (b) how ocean acidification interacts with processes at the organismal level; and (c) how the earth system history informs our understanding of the effects of ocean acidification on the present day and future ocean.

Solicitations issued under this program:
NSF 10-530, FY 2010-FY2011
NSF 12-500, FY 2012
NSF 12-600, FY 2013
NSF 13-586, FY 2014
NSF 13-586 was the final solicitation that will be released for this program.

PI Meetings:
1st U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting(March 22-24, 2011, Woods Hole, MA)
2nd U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting(Sept. 18-20, 2013, Washington, DC)
3rd U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting (June 9-11, 2015, Woods Hole, MA – Tentative)

NSF media releases for the Ocean Acidification Program:

Press Release 10-186 NSF Awards Grants to Study Effects of Ocean Acidification

Discovery Blue Mussels "Hang On" Along Rocky Shores: For How Long?

Discovery nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) Discoveries - Trouble in Paradise: Ocean Acidification This Way Comes - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 12-179 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Ocean Acidification: Finding New Answers Through National Science Foundation Research Grants - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 13-102 World Oceans Month Brings Mixed News for Oysters

Press Release 13-108 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Natural Underwater Springs Show How Coral Reefs Respond to Ocean Acidification - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 13-148 Ocean acidification: Making new discoveries through National Science Foundation research grants

Press Release 13-148 - Video nsf.gov - News - Video - NSF Ocean Sciences Division Director David Conover answers questions about ocean acidification. - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 14-010 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Palau's coral reefs surprisingly resistant to ocean acidification - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 14-116 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Ocean Acidification: NSF awards $11.4 million in new grants to study effects on marine ecosystems - US National Science Foundation (NSF)



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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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