Feeding records for pH experiments conducted on Lophelia pertusa specimens collected in the Norwegian Skagerrak and the Gulf of Mexico (Lophelia OA project)

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/659152
Data Type: experimental
Version: 1
Version Date: 2016-09-20

Project
» Physiological and genetic responses of the deep-water coral, Lophelia pertusa, to ongoing ocean acidification in the Gulf of Mexico (Lophelia OA)

Program
» Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES): Ocean Acidification (formerly CRI-OA) (SEES-OA)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Cordes, Erik E.Temple University (Temple)Principal Investigator, Contact
Kulathinal, Robert J.Temple University (Temple)Co-Principal Investigator
Ake, HannahWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

Abstract
Feeding records for pH experiments conducted on Lophelia pertusa specimens collected in the Norwegian Skagerrak and the Gulf of Mexico (Lophelia OA project)


Dataset Description

Records of feeding from pH manipulation experiments on Lophelia pertusa. Specimens were collected from Tisler Reef in the Norwegian Skagerrak and from the Gulf of Mexico.

Related References: Georgian S.E, et al. 2016


Acquisition Description

Acquisition Description for Tisler Reef Data:

Net calcification was measured using the total alkalinity anomaly (Smith & Key 1975; Ohde & Hossain 2004). Corals were individually placed in closed glass chambers (220 ml) in a water bath that maintained temperature to +/-0.2 degrees C during all trials. To avoid hypoxia or the severe reductions of pH during incubations, ambient air was continuously bubbled into the chambers at a slow rate (1-2 bubbles s-1). This also provided adequate circulation within the chamber. A 60 ml water sample was collected by syringe before and after the incubation period, and measured for total alkalinity in duplicate. The respiration rate of each colony was measured as oxygen consumption in a 400 ml closed acrylic chamber during hour-long incubations. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were measured in umol L-1 using a Strathkelvin 782 dual oxygen meter and SI130 microcathode electrode. The feeding rate of each colony was measured as the capture rate of adult Artemia salina during a one-hour period in 0.8 L incubation chambers containing a starting prey density of 125 Artemia L-1.

Acquisition Description for Gulf of Mexico Data:

The buoyant weight of each colony was obtained at the start and end of the two-week experimental period by weighing fragments submerged in seawater and attached by a hook to an analytical balance (Denver Instrument, precision of 0.1 mg). The respiration rate of each colony was measured as oxygen consumption in an 800 ml closed acrylic chamber during hour-long incubations. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were measured in umol L-1 using a Strathkelvin 782 dual oxygen meter and SI130 microcathode electrode. The feeding rate of each colony was measured as the capture rate of adult Artemia salina during a one-hour period in 0.8 L incubation chambers containing a starting prey density of 125 Artemia L-1.


Processing Description

Processing Description for Tisler Reef Data:

Net calcification was calculated as umol CaCO3 gTW-1 h-1 using the following formula: Calcification = 0.5 * V * [(DeltaTAF) - (DeltaTAC)] / T * TW, where V is the volume of seawater in liters, DeltaTAF is the average change in total alkalinity during the incubation of each fragment, DeltaTAC is the average change in total alkalinity during the control incubations, T is the incubation time in hours, and TW is the final tissue weight of each fragment in grams. To allow for comparison to other studies, we then calculated net calcification as percent starting weight day-1. Capture rate was standardized to polyp number and reported as Artemia polyp-1 h-1.

Processing Description for Gulf of Mexico Data: 

Buoyant weights were converted to dry weights in air using the density of the skeleton and of the seawater. A correction for the contribution of tissue to buoyant weights (following Davies 1989) was applied to obtain the dry weight of the skeleton alone. Net calcification was then calculated as the change in skeletal dry weight over the two-week experimental period, expressed as % starting weight day-1. Capture rate was standardized to polyp number and reported as Artemia polyp-1 h-1.

Data Management Office Notes:

-Separate spreadsheets in the original file (one for each location) have been combined and served as one object.
-Re-formatted column names to comply with BCO-DMO naming standards. 


[ table of contents | back to top ]

Related Publications

Georgian, S. E., Dupont, S., Kurman, M., Butler, A., Strömberg, S. M., Larsson, A. I., & Cordes, E. E. (2016). Biogeographic variability in the physiological response of the cold-water coralLophelia pertusato ocean acidification. Marine Ecology, 37(6), 1345–1359. https://doi.org/10.1111/maec.12373
General
Ohde, S., & Mozaffar Hossain, M. M. (2004). Effect of CaCO3 (aragonite) saturation state of seawater on calcification of Porites coral. GEOCHEMICAL JOURNAL, 38(6), 613–621. https://doi.org/10.2343/geochemj.38.613
Methods
Smith, S. V., & Key, G. S. (1975). Carbon dioxide and metabolism in marine environments1. Limnology and Oceanography, 20(3), 493–495. doi:10.4319/lo.1975.20.3.0493
Methods

[ table of contents | back to top ]

Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
locationLocation where specimen was collected; Tisler Reef or the Gulf of Mexico unitless
pH_treatmentLevel of pH treatment unitless
tankTank number unitless
fragment_numFragment ID number unitless
polyps_numNumber of polyps on fragment count
starting_DWStarting dry weight grams
AFDMAsh free dry mass grams
dayDay of measurement; 0 or 14 day
artemia_consumed_ttlTotal Artemia salina consumed by polyps in 1 hour liters
artemia_polypArtemia salina consumed per polyp in 1 hour liters of Artemia per polyp
artemia_gTWArtemia salina consumed per gTW in 1 hour liters of Artemia per gTW


[ table of contents | back to top ]

Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
SI130 microcathode electrode
Generic Instrument Name
Oxygen Microelectrode Sensor
Dataset-specific Description
Measured dissolved oxygen concentrations
Generic Instrument Description
Any microelectrode sensor that measures oxygen.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Strathkelvin 782 dual oxygen meter
Generic Instrument Name
Dissolved Oxygen Sensor
Dataset-specific Description
Measured dissolved oxygen concentrations
Generic Instrument Description
An electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analyzed

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Scale
Generic Instrument Name
Scale
Dataset-specific Description
Used to weigh specimens
Generic Instrument Description
An instrument used to measure weight or mass.


[ table of contents | back to top ]

Deployments

Gulf_of_Mexico

Website
Platform
lab Cordes

Tisler_Reef

Website
Platform
lab Cordes


[ table of contents | back to top ]

Project Information

Physiological and genetic responses of the deep-water coral, Lophelia pertusa, to ongoing ocean acidification in the Gulf of Mexico (Lophelia OA)

Coverage: Northern Gulf of Mexico


The Gulf of Mexico deep water ecosystems are threatened by the persistent threat of ocean acidification. Deep-water corals will be among the first to feel the effects of this process, in particular the deep-water scleractinians that form their skeleton from aragonite. The continued shoaling of the aragonite saturation horizon (the depth below which aragonite is undersaturated) will place many of the known, and as yet undiscovered, deep-water corals at risk in the very near future. The most common deep-water framework-forming scleractinian in the world's oceans is Lophelia pertusa. This coral is most abundant in the North Atlantic, where aragonite saturation states are relatively high, but it also creates extensive reef structures between 300 and 600 m depth in the Gulf of Mexico where aragonite saturation states were previously unknown. Preliminary data indicate that pH at this depth range is between 7.85 and 8.03, and the aragonite saturation state is typically between 1.28 and 1.69. These are the first measurements of aragonite saturation state for the deep Gulf of Mexico, and are among the lowest Aragonite saturation state yet recorded for framework-forming corals in any body of water, at any depth.

This project will examine the effects of ocean acidification on L. pertusa, combining laboratory experiments, rigorous oceanographic measurements, the latest genome and transcriptome sequencing platforms, and quantitative PCR and enzyme assays to examine changes in coral gene expression and enzyme activity related to differences in carbonate chemistry. Short-term and long-term laboratory experiments will be performed at Aragonite saturation state of 1.45 and 0.75 and the organismal (e.g., survivorship and calcification rate) and genetic (e.g., transcript abundance) responses of the coral will be monitored. Genomic DNA and RNA will be extracted, total mRNA purified, and comprehensive and quantitative profiles of the transcriptome generated using a combination of 454 and Illumina sequencing technologies. Key genes in the calcification pathways as well as other differentially expressed genes will be targeted for specific qPCR assays to verify the Illumina sequencing results. On a research cruise, L. pertusa will be sampled (preserved at depth) along a natural gradient in carbonate chemistry, and included in the Illumina sequencing and qPCR assays. Water samples will be obtained by submersible-deployed niskin bottles adjacent to the coral collections as well as CTD casts of the water column overlying the sites. Water samples will be analyzed for pH, alkalinity, nitrates and soluble reactive phosphorus. These will be used in combination with historical data in a model to hindcast Aragonite saturation state.

This project will provide new physiological and genetic data on an ecologically-significant and anthropogenically-threatened deepwater coral in the Gulf of Mexico. An experimental system, already developed by the PIs, offers controlled conditions to test the effect of Aragonite saturation state on calcification rates in scleractinians and, subsequently, to identify candidate genes and pathways involved in the response to reduced pH and Aragonite saturation state. Both long-term and population sampling experiments will provide additional transcriptomic data and specifically investigate the expression of the candidate genes. These results will contribute to our understanding of the means by which scleractinians may acclimate and acclimatize to low pH, alkalinity, and Aragonite saturation state. Furthermore, the investigators will continue a time series of oceanographic measurements of the carbonate system in the Gulf of Mexico, which will allow the inclusion of this significant body of water in models of past and future ocean acidification scenarios.



[ table of contents | back to top ]

Program Information

Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES): Ocean Acidification (formerly CRI-OA) (SEES-OA)


Coverage: global


NSF Climate Research Investment (CRI) activities that were initiated in 2010 are now included under Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES). SEES is a portfolio of activities that highlights NSF's unique role in helping society address the challenge(s) of achieving sustainability. Detailed information about the SEES program is available from NSF (https://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=504707).

In recognition of the need for basic research concerning the nature, extent and impact of ocean acidification on oceanic environments in the past, present and future, the goal of the SEES: OA program is to understand (a) the chemistry and physical chemistry of ocean acidification; (b) how ocean acidification interacts with processes at the organismal level; and (c) how the earth system history informs our understanding of the effects of ocean acidification on the present day and future ocean.

Solicitations issued under this program:
NSF 10-530, FY 2010-FY2011
NSF 12-500, FY 2012
NSF 12-600, FY 2013
NSF 13-586, FY 2014
NSF 13-586 was the final solicitation that will be released for this program.

PI Meetings:
1st U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting(March 22-24, 2011, Woods Hole, MA)
2nd U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting(Sept. 18-20, 2013, Washington, DC)
3rd U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting (June 9-11, 2015, Woods Hole, MA – Tentative)

NSF media releases for the Ocean Acidification Program:

Press Release 10-186 NSF Awards Grants to Study Effects of Ocean Acidification

Discovery Blue Mussels "Hang On" Along Rocky Shores: For How Long?

Discovery nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) Discoveries - Trouble in Paradise: Ocean Acidification This Way Comes - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 12-179 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Ocean Acidification: Finding New Answers Through National Science Foundation Research Grants - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 13-102 World Oceans Month Brings Mixed News for Oysters

Press Release 13-108 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Natural Underwater Springs Show How Coral Reefs Respond to Ocean Acidification - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 13-148 Ocean acidification: Making new discoveries through National Science Foundation research grants

Press Release 13-148 - Video nsf.gov - News - Video - NSF Ocean Sciences Division Director David Conover answers questions about ocean acidification. - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 14-010 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Palau's coral reefs surprisingly resistant to ocean acidification - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 14-116 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Ocean Acidification: NSF awards $11.4 million in new grants to study effects on marine ecosystems - US National Science Foundation (NSF)



[ table of contents | back to top ]

Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

[ table of contents | back to top ]