Physiology of phytoplankton collected in coastal waters at Palmer LTER near Palmer Station, Antarctica, 2012 and 2013 (Phytoplankton Seasonal Dynamics project)

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/662036
Data Type: Other Field Results
Version:
Version Date: 2016-10-19

Project
» The seasonal dynamics of CO2, primary production, and DMS in the Western Antarctic Peninsula: Measurements of pools and processes using mass spectrometry (Phytoplankton Seasonal Dynamics)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Morel, FrancoisPrinceton UniversityLead Principal Investigator
Dacey, JohnWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)Principal Investigator
Young, Jodi N.Princeton UniversityContact
Copley, NancyWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager


Acquisition Description

References:

Detailed description of methods are given in the published peer-reviewed papers listed below:

Goldman, J., Kranz, S., Young, J.N., Tortell, P.D., Bender, M., Morel, F.M.M. (2015) Gross and net production during the spring bloom along the Western Antarctic Peninsula New Phytologist 205 (1): 182-191. DOI: 10.1111/nph.13125.

Kranz, S., Young, J.N., Goldman, J., Tortell, P.D., Bender, M., Morel, F.M.M. (2015) Low temperature reduces the energetic requirement for the CO2 concentrating mechanism in diatoms. New Phytologist 205 (1): 192-201. DOI: 10.1111/nph.12976

Tortell, P.D., Asher, E.C., Dacey, J.W.H. Kranz, S., Young, J.N., Goldman, J. Ducklow, H., Grzymski, J. Stanley, R., Morel, F.M.M. (2014) Metabolic balance of coastal Antarctic waters revealed by autonomous high frequency pCO2 and dO2 /Ar measurements Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061266 

Young, J.N., Goldman, J., Kranz, S., Tortell, P.D., Morel, F.M.M. (2015) Slow carboxylation of Rubisco constrains the rate of carbon fixation during Antarctic phytoplankton blooms. New Phytologist 205 (1): 172-181. DOI: 10.1111/nph.13021


Processing Description

BCO-DMO Processing:
- added conventional header with dataset name, PI name, version date, reference information
- column names reformatted to comply with BCO-DMO standards
- added lat and lon for mapping purposes
- replaced n.d. with nd (no data) and blank cells with ND
- reformatted date from Month d, yyyy to yyyy-mm-dd


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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
date_plotsampling date (UTC), formatted to allow sequential plotting of time variable year-month-day
tempAs measured by CTD at 10 m depth degrees celsius
salSalinity parts per thousand
pCO2CO2 partial pressure. Calculated from TA; pH; temperature salinity; phosphate and silicate using CO2Sys ppm
CO2_aqCO2 aqueous. Calculated from TA; pH; temperature; salinity; phosphate and silicate using CO2Sys micromole/kilogram
TA_measTotal alkalinity. Measured in 0.2micron filtered and poisoned seawater by potentiometric titration with average precision of +/- 7 micromole/kg micromole/kilogram
TA_sdTotal alkalinity standard deviation micromole/kilogram
DIC_calDissolved Inorganic Carbon. Calculated from TA; pH; temperature; salinity; phosphate and silicate using CO2Sys micromole/kilogram
pHcalibrated potentiometrey (until mid-Dec) and spectrophotometrically (rest) and adjusted for temperature total scale
NO3_NO2_diss_avgDissolved nitrate and nitrite micromolar
NO3_NO2_diss_stdevDissolved nitrate and nitrite standard deviation micromolar
SiO4_diss_avgDissolved silicate micromolar
SiO4_diss_stdevDissolved silicate standard deviation micromolar
PO4_diss_avgDissolved phosphate micromolar
PO4_diss_stdevDissolved phosphate standard deviation micromolar
Chl_a_avgChlorophyll a concentrations; as measured with turner fluorometer micrograms/liter
Chl_a_stdevChlorophyll a standard deviation micrograms/liter
NPP_14C_avgNet Primary Production as measured by 14C bottle incubations (24 h) C (micromoles)/liter/day
NPP_14C_stdevNPP 14C standard deviation C (micromoles)/liter/day
GPP_14C_avgGross Primary Production as measured by 14C bottle incubations (2 h) C (micromoles)/liter/day
GPP_14C_stdevGPP 14C standard deviation C (micromoles)/liter/day
GPP_18O_avgGross Primary Production as measured by production of 18O2 from H218O water (~6h) O2 micromoles/liter/day
GPP_18O_stdevGPP 18O standard deviation O2 micromoles/liter/day
NPP_O2_Ar_avgNet Primary Production as measured by change in O2 with respect to Argon in bottle incubations (~6h) O2 micromoles/liter/day
NPP_O2_Ar_stdevNPP O2/Ar standard deviation O2 micromoles/liter/day
POCParticulate Organic Carbon as measured on Elemental Combustion Analyzer micromoles/liter
PONParticulate Nitrogen as measured on Elemental Combustion Analyzer micromoles/liter
C_NCarbon to nitrogen ratio of particulate matter; calcuated from POC and PON mol:mol
POC_d13CIsotopic ratio of 13C to 12C in POC normalised to PDB standard per mil
ProteinTotal protein from particulate matter as measured by BCA Assay microgram/liter
RubiscoPercent of the carboxylating enzyme Ribulose 1;5 bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) as measured by quantitative immunoblotting % total protein (mg:mg)
Fucopigment concentration of fucoxanthin; as measured by HPLC micrograms/liter
HexFuc19pigment concentration of 19'Hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin; as measured by HPLC micrograms/liter
Alloxpigment concentration of alloxanthin; as measured by HPLC micrograms/liter
diatomCalculated from pigments using equation 0.9*(Fuco-0.05*19'HexFuc) cells/milliliter
PhaeoCalculated from pigments using equation 1.25*19'HexFuc cells/milliliter
CryptophyteCalculated from pigments using equation 0.7*Allox cells/milliliter
eCAActivity of external carbonic anhydrase (eCA) using the depletion of 18O of aqueous 13C18O2 caused by hydration and dehydration steps of CO2 and bicarbonate. Shown as the ratio of catalyzed CO2/bicarbonate conversion rate compared to the uncatalyzed rate and normalised to chlorophyll. Units are Fold Activity compared to uncatalyzed rate; normalised to chlorophyll concentrations. milligrams Chl-a/liter (mg/L)
fHCO3_avgProportion of bicarbonate of the total inorganic carbon taken up by the cells to support photosynthesis. Measured using the disquilibrium technique dimensionless
fHCO3_stdevfHCO3 standard deviation dimensionless
K1_2_CO2_avgMichaelis-Menten half-saturation constant for the CO2 concentration that results in half maximum rate of carbon fixation rate of the natural phytoplankton community concentrated onto a 2micron filter micromolar
K1_2_CO2_stdevK1/2(CO2) standard deviation micromolar
latlatitude; north is positive decimal degrees
lonlongitude; east is positive decimal degrees
yearsampling year year
julian_dayday of year days


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
unfiltered seawater pump
Generic Instrument Name
Pump
Dataset-specific Description
Used to obtain seawater samples
Generic Instrument Description
A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
CTD Sea-Bird SBE SEACAT 19plus
Dataset-specific Description
Depth profiles of temperature and salinity measurements
Generic Instrument Description
Self contained self powered CTD profiler. Measures conductivity, temperature and pressure in both profiling (samples at 4 scans/sec) and moored (sample rates of once every 5 seconds to once every 9 hours) mode. Available in plastic or titanium housing with depth ranges of 600m and 7000m respectively. Minature submersible pump provides water to conductivity cell.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometer
Dataset-specific Description
To measure dissolved gases
Generic Instrument Description
Membrane-introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) is a method of introducing analytes into the mass spectrometer's vacuum chamber via a semipermeable membrane.


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Deployments

Morel_PAL-LTER

Website
Platform
Palmer LTER
Start Date
2012-10-24
End Date
2013-03-27


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Project Information

The seasonal dynamics of CO2, primary production, and DMS in the Western Antarctic Peninsula: Measurements of pools and processes using mass spectrometry (Phytoplankton Seasonal Dynamics)

Coverage: Western Antarctic Peninsula, Palmer Station, LTER-PALMER sites A and B


Description from NSF award abstract:
The Southern Ocean plays a key role in marine biogeochemistry and global climate. Along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), winter air temperatures have increased by more than 5 ºC over the past five decades, and sea ice duration and extent have decreased substantially, leading to dramatic ecological perturbations. The sensitivity of primary production and climate-active gas cycling to on-going changes in the physical and chemical environment of the WAP is the key to understanding potential biogeochemical climate feedbacks in this region. The objective of this project is to characterize and understand the seasonal dynamics of primary production and climate-active gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the WAP. The project will examine (1) the relationships among seasonal changes in pCO2, temperature and light with respect to gross primary production, net primary production, and net community production; (2) the extent to which changes in surface water pCO2 and temperature drive ecological shifts in the dominant phytoplankton species assemblage composition, and alter key processes in the DMS cycle. The research will employ membrane inlet mass spectrometry to monitor dissolved gases in ambient seawater at the Palmer Station LTER site and conduct physiological/biochemical assays with tracer compounds. The research will provide unprecedented information on the temporal evolution of primary production and dissolved gas concentrations in the WAP in relation to surface hydrography and sea ice cover. Field studies will be supported by laboratory experiments with model species subjected to detailed studies of carbon metabolism. This project will contribute significantly to the understanding of seasonal biogeochemical dynamics in a region that is particularly sensitive to ongoing climate perturbations and important for the global air-sea exchange of CO2.

Related publications:
Young, J.N., Goldman, J., Kranz, S., Tortell, P.D., Morel, F.M.M. (2015) Slow carboxylation of Rubisco constrains the rate of carbon fixation during Antarctic phytoplankton blooms. New Phytologist 205 (1): 172-181. DOI: 10.1111/nph.13021

Goldman, J., Kranz, S., Young, J.N., Tortell, P.D., Bender, M., Morel, F.M.M. (2015) Gross and net production during the spring bloom along the Western Antarctic Peninsula New Phytologist 205 (1): 182-191. DOI: 10.1111/nph.13125

Kranz, S., Young, J.N., Goldman, J., Tortell, P.D., Bender, M., Morel, F.M.M. (2015) Low temperature reduces the energetic requirement for the CO2 concentrating mechanism in diatoms. New Phytologist 205 (1): 192-201. DOI: 10.1111/nph.12976

Tortell, P.D., Asher, E.C., Dacey, J.W.H. Kranz, S., Young, J.N., Goldman, J. Ducklow, H., Grzymski, J. Stanley, R., Morel, F.M.M. (2014) Metabolic balance of coastal Antarctic waters revealed by autonomous high frequency pCO2 and dO2 /Ar measurements Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061266



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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Office of Polar Programs (formerly NSF PLR) (NSF OPP)

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