|Kadko, David C.||Florida International University (FIU)||Principal Investigator|
|Rauch, Shannon||Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)||BCO-DMO Data Manager|
A weighted sampling hose with a portable CTD was deployed over the side of the ship to collect seawater for Beryllium-7 (Be-7) analysis. The seawater was collected in plastic 700 liter holding tanks and then passed through iron-oxide impregnated Acrylic fiber filters (adsorbs Be-7). The efficiency of the fiber for extraction of Be from seawater was determined by adding stable Be atomic absorption standards to a drum containing seawater, pumping the water through an iron fiber cartridge, and at every 100 L measuring the Be content of the cartridge effluent. Based on several trials, it was found that for sample volumes in the range 400-700L, extraction efficiencies are respectively, 82 +/- 3% to 76 +/- 2%.
All fibers were returned to the lab where they were dried, ashed, and pressed into pellets, which in turn were placed over a low background germanium gamma detector. 7Be has a readily identifiable peak at 478keV. The detector is calibrated for these samples by adding a commercially prepared mixed solution of known gamma activities to an ashed fiber and counting it in the pellet geometry.
Please refer to:
Kadko, D. and D. Olson (1996) Be-7 as a tracer of surface water subduction and mixed layer history. Deep Sea Res. 43, 89-116. doi:10.1016/0967-0637(96)00011-8
- modified parameter names to conform with BCO-DMO and GEOTRACES naming conventions;
- added cruise_id column;
- replaced "bd" with "BDL" (below detection limit);
- removed PI-provided lat, lon, and date. Same as values in EPZT master data file.
Additional GEOTRACES Processing:
As was done for the GEOTRACES-NAT data, BCO-DMO added standard US GEOTRACES information, such as the US GEOTRACES event number, to each submitted dataset lacking this information. To accomplish this, BCO-DMO compiled a 'master' dataset composed of the following parameters: cruise_id, EXPOCODE,SECT_ID, STNNBR, CASTNO, GEOTRC_EVENTNO, GEOTRC_SAMPNO, GEOTRC_INSTR, SAMPNO, GF_NO, BTLNBR, BTLNBR_FLAG_W, DATE_START_EVENT, TIME_START_EVENT, ISO_DATETIME_UTC_START_EVENT, EVENT_LAT, EVENT_LON, DEPTH_MIN, DEPTH_MAX, BTL_DATE, BTL_TIME, BTL_ISO_DATETIME_UTC, BTL_LAT, BTL_LON, ODF_CTDPRS, SMDEPTH, FMDEPTH, BTMDEPTH, CTDPRS, CTDDEPTH.
This added information will facilitate subsequent analysis and inter comparison of the datasets.
Bottle parameters in the master file were taken from the GT-C_Bottle and ODF_Bottle datasets. Non-bottle parameters, including those from GeoFish tows, Aerosol sampling, and McLane Pumps, were taken from the TN303 Event Log (version 30 Oct 2014). Where applicable, pump information was taken from the PUMP_Nuts_Sals dataset.
A standardized BCO-DMO method (called "join") was then used to merge the missing parameters to each US GEOTRACES dataset, most often by matching on sample_GEOTRC or on some unique combination of other parameters.
If the master parameters were included in the original data file and the values did not differ from the master file, the original data columns were retained and the names of the parameters were changed from the PI-submitted names to the standardized master names. If there were differences between the PI-supplied parameter values and those in the master file, both columns were retained. If the original data submission included all of the master parameters, no additional columns were added, but parameter names were modified to match the naming conventions of the master file.
See the dataset parameters documentation for a description of which parameters were supplied by the PI and which were added via the join method.
|GEOTRC_EVENTNO||GEOTRACES event number||unitless|
|ISO_DATETIME_UTC_START_EVENT||Date and time, formatted to the ISO 8601 standard, at the start of the sampling event, according to the event log.||YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS[.xx]Z|
|EVENT_LAT||Latitude at the start of the event; north is positive.||decimal degrees|
|EVENT_LON||Longitude at the start of the event; east is positive.||decimal degrees|
|GEOTRC_SAMPNO||Unique GEOTRACES sample number||unitless|
|depth||Sample depth||meters (m)|
|Be_7_CONC||Be-7 measured in disintegrations per minute (this is equivalent to 1 Becquerel/60) per cubic meter||disintegrations per minute (dpm) / per cubic meter (dpm/m^3)|
|Be_7_CONC_ERR||Error (+/-) associated with Be_7_CONC||disintegrations per minute (dpm) / per cubic meter (dpm/m^3)|
R/V Thomas G. Thompson
|Start Date|| |
|End Date|| |
A zonal transect in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) from Peru to Tahiti as the second cruise of the U.S.GEOTRACES Program. This Pacific section includes a large area characterized by high rates of primary production and particle export in the eastern boundary associated with the Peru Upwelling, a large oxygen minimum zone that is a major global sink for fixed nitrogen, and a large hydrothermal plume arising from the East Pacific Rise. This particular section was selected as a result of open planning workshops in 2007 and 2008, with a final recommendation made by the U.S.GEOTRACES Steering Committee in 2009. It is the first part of a two-stage plan that will include a meridional section of the Pacific from Tahiti to Alaska as a subsequent expedition. Figure 1. The 2013 GEOTRACES EPZT Cruise Track. [click on the image to view a larger version] Additional cruise information is available from the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): http://www.rvdata.us/catalog/TN303
From the NSF Award Abstract
The mission of the International GEOTRACES Program (https://www.geotraces.org/), of which the U.S. chemical oceanography research community is a founding member, is "to identify processes and quantify fluxes that control the distributions of key trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and to establish the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions" (GEOTRACES Science Plan, 2006). In the United States, ocean chemists are currently in the process of organizing a zonal transect in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) from Peru to Tahiti as the second cruise of the U.S.GEOTRACES Program. This Pacific section includes a large area characterized by high rates of primary production and particle export in the eastern boundary associated with the Peru Upwelling, a large oxygen minimum zone that is a major global sink for fixed nitrogen, and a large hydrothermal plume arising from the East Pacific Rise. This particular section was selected as a result of open planning workshops in 2007 and 2008, with a final recommendation made by the U.S.GEOTRACES Steering Committee in 2009. It is the first part of a two-stage plan that will include a meridional section of the Pacific from Tahiti to Alaska as a subsequent expedition.
This award provides funding for management of the U.S.GEOTRACES Pacific campaign to a team of scientists from the University of Southern California, Old Dominion University, and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The three co-leaders will provide mission leadership, essential support services, and management structure for acquiring the trace elements and isotopes samples listed as core parameters in the International GEOTRACES Science Plan, plus hydrographic and nutrient data needed by participating investigators. With this support from NSF, the management team will (1) plan and coordinate the 52-day Pacific research cruise described above; (2) obtain representative samples for a wide variety of trace metals of interest using conventional CTD/rosette and GEOTRACES Sampling Systems; (3) acquire conventional JGOFS/WOCE-quality hydrographic data (CTD, transmissometer, fluorometer, oxygen sensor, etc) along with discrete samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen (to 1 uM detection limits), plant pigments, redox tracers such as ammonium and nitrite, and dissolved nutrients at micro- and nanomolar levels; (4) ensure that proper QA/QC protocols are followed and reported, as well as fulfilling all GEOTRACES Intercalibration protocols; (5) prepare and deliver all hydrographic-type data to the GEOTRACES Data Center (and US data centers); and (6) coordinate cruise communications between all participating investigators, including preparation of a hydrographic report/publication.
Broader Impacts: The project is part of an international collaborative program that has forged strong partnerships in the intercalibration and implementation phases that are unprecedented in chemical oceanography. The science product of these collective missions will enhance our ability to understand how to interpret the chemical composition of the ocean, and interpret how climate change will affect ocean chemistry. Partnerships include contributions to the infrastructure of developing nations with overlapping interests in the study area, in this case Peru. There is a strong educational component to the program, with many Ph.D. students carrying out thesis research within the program.
Description from NSF award abstract:
In the ocean, trace elements function variously as nutrients, as contaminants from human activity, and even as convenient tracers of current and past oceanographic processes. Their biogeochemical cycling has major impacts on the ocean carbon cycle and ecosystem dynamics as well as on global climate change. Many processes influencing the distribution and behavior of trace elements in the ocean cannot be directly observed, so consequently a variety of geochemical tracers are used to provide important constraints on their rates and pathways. Beryllium-7 (Be7) is a cosmogenic (i.e., produced in the upper atmosphere) radionuclide that, because of its half-life (53.3d), can be used in the study of environmental processes occurring over seasonal timescales. This timescale is important to studies of biological production, nutrient regeneration, and atmospheric deposition, to name a few.
In this project, a research team from the University of Miami will make measurements of water column Be7 along the U.S.GEOTRACES transect from Peru to Tahiti in 2013. The mission of the International GEOTRACES Program (of which the US program is a component) is "to identify processes and quantify fluxes that control the distributions of key trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and to establish the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions."
As part of the multi-institutional U.S.GEOTRACES Pacific campaign, the Miami team will address key tasks formulated within the GEOTRACES Science Plan. Specifically, they will: (1) provide realistic estimates of the underlying transport processes influencing measured trace elements of interest (TEI) distributions; they will use water column measurements of Be7 as a tracer of physical processes, such as mixing and upwelling, which redistribute biologically active species; and (2) develop and apply new Be7 methods for quantifying the atmospheric deposition of TEIs measured by other research teams participating in the campaign. Measurements of Be7 in the surface waters and in the lower atmosphere along the cruise track will provide estimates of the atmospheric input of relevant TEIs. The atmospheric input into the global ocean is an important budgetary component of numerous chemical species, yet is very difficult to constrain. The data generated in this work will be available to allow ground-truthing of aerosol deposition models and the atmospheric input of trace elements.
GEOTRACES gained momentum following a special symposium, S02: Biogeochemical cycling of trace elements and isotopes in the ocean and applications to constrain contemporary marine processes (GEOSECS II), at a 2003 Goldschmidt meeting convened in Japan. The GEOSECS II acronym referred to the Geochemical Ocean Section Studies To determine full water column distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes, including their concentration, chemical speciation, and physical form, along a sufficient number of sections in each ocean basin to establish the principal relationships between these distributions and with more traditional hydrographic parameters;
* To evaluate the sources, sinks, and internal cycling of these species and thereby characterize more completely the physical, chemical and biological processes regulating their distributions, and the sensitivity of these processes to global change; and
* To understand the processes that control the concentrations of geochemical species used for proxies of the past environment, both in the water column and in the substrates that reflect the water column.
GEOTRACES will be global in scope, consisting of ocean sections complemented by regional process studies. Sections and process studies will combine fieldwork, laboratory experiments and modelling. Beyond realizing the scientific objectives identified above, a natural outcome of this work will be to build a community of marine scientists who understand the processes regulating trace element cycles sufficiently well to exploit this knowledge reliably in future interdisciplinary studies.
Expand "Projects" below for information about and data resulting from individual US GEOTRACES research projects.