SEM micrographs of selected common Mud Patch benthic forams from R/V Endeavor EN524 in the continental shelf off New England; 40.43 N 70.5 W from May 2013 (OA, Hypoxia and Warming project)

Data Type: Cruise Results
Version Date: 2016-12-16

» Ocean Acidification, Hypoxia and Warming: Experimental Investigations into Compounded Effects of Global Change on Benthic Foraminifera (OA, Hypoxia and Warming)

» Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES): Ocean Acidification (formerly CRI-OA) (SEES-OA)
Bernhard, Joan M.Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)Principal Investigator
Copley, NancyWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

Dataset Description

Acquisition Description

Foraminiferal-bearing sediments were collected using MC800 multicorer, and sliced into selected 1-cm intervals and fixed with buffered formalin.  For these images, sediments from the 0-1 cm slice from MC-10 (40.4380  -70.496) were sieved over a 125-µm screen and the >125 µm fraction was examined for foraminifera.  Select specimens of some of the more common species were air dried, mounted on an SEM stub, and imaged with a tabletop Scanning Electron Microscope.

Processing Description

BCO-DMO Processing Notes:
created a flat file with species names, SEM magnification, and download links

[ table of contents | back to top ]


speciesforam species unitless
magnificationSEM magnification unitless
download_linklink to download the image file unitless

[ table of contents | back to top ]


Dataset-specific Instrument Name
MC800 multicorer
Generic Instrument Name
Multi Corer
Generic Instrument Description
The Multi Corer is a benthic coring device used to collect multiple, simultaneous, undisturbed sediment/water samples from the seafloor. Multiple coring tubes with varying sampling capacity depending on tube dimensions are mounted in a frame designed to sample the deep ocean seafloor. For more information, see Barnett et al. (1984) in Oceanologica Acta, 7, pp. 399-408.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Scanning Electron Microscope
Generic Instrument Name
Electron Microscope
Generic Instrument Description
Instruments that generate enlarged images of samples using the phenomena of reflection and absorption of electrons behaving as waves.

[ table of contents | back to top ]



R/V Endeavor
Start Date
End Date
UNOLS cruise request: The May cruise is the first for the NSF OCE funded Ocean Acidification, Hypoxia and Warming project also known by the project researchers as "OA Propagule".  The cruise was timed such that samples would be collected soon after the spring bloom. During the cruise, investigators plan to collect CTD profile data, including dissolved oxygen, bottom water with Niskin bottles deployed on the CTD rosette, MC800 multicores, and Soutar boxcores from the "Mud Patch" study site. The study area is located on the continental shelf approximately 50 nm south of Martha's Vineyard (40.43 N 70.5 W). The original cruise event log and other underway data submitted by the vessel operator will be available from the NSF R2R cruise catalog. Cruise track image from the University of Rhode Island, the vessel operator.

[ table of contents | back to top ]

Project Information

Ocean Acidification, Hypoxia and Warming: Experimental Investigations into Compounded Effects of Global Change on Benthic Foraminifera (OA, Hypoxia and Warming)

Coverage: continental shelf off New England

from the NSF award abstract:

The average sea surface temperature (SST) has increased over the last 100 years, rising atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) is lowering the pH of the oceans, and the extent and intensity of low-oxygen bottom waters is growing, at least in certain regions. The biological impacts of these ongoing changes -- warming, acidification, and hypoxia -- have each been studied independently, but few studies have explored the possible interactions among these stressors.

This research, led by a scientist from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, studies the compounded effects of ocean acidification, hypoxia, and warming on an assemblage of benthic foraminifera collected from the continental shelf off New England. Foraminifera are an ideal organism for this work because they (1) are relatively small, allowing experimentation on statistically significant populations; (2) have both calcareous and non-calcareous representatives; (3) are relatively short-lived so experiments include a major portion of their life cycle; (4) include aerobes and anaerobes; and (5) provide a fossil record allowing comparisons across time. Laboratory culturing experiments will be used to determine the response of benthic foraminifera, in terms of survival and growth, to co-varying parameters of pH and oxygen, and to explore the influence of increased temperature on these responses. The researchers will examine the relative effects of higher pCO2, lower [O2], and higher temperature (T) on both calcareous and non-calcareous benthic foraminifera. In addition, they will examine the pre-Industrial benthic foraminiferal assemblage at the field site, and will compare that assemblage to those produced in the experiments under pre-Industrial (lower than current day) and elevated pCO2 levels.

[ table of contents | back to top ]

Program Information

Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES): Ocean Acidification (formerly CRI-OA) (SEES-OA)

Coverage: global

NSF Climate Research Investment (CRI) activities that were initiated in 2010 are now included under Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES). SEES is a portfolio of activities that highlights NSF's unique role in helping society address the challenge(s) of achieving sustainability. Detailed information about the SEES program is available from NSF (

In recognition of the need for basic research concerning the nature, extent and impact of ocean acidification on oceanic environments in the past, present and future, the goal of the SEES: OA program is to understand (a) the chemistry and physical chemistry of ocean acidification; (b) how ocean acidification interacts with processes at the organismal level; and (c) how the earth system history informs our understanding of the effects of ocean acidification on the present day and future ocean.

Solicitations issued under this program:
NSF 10-530, FY 2010-FY2011
NSF 12-500, FY 2012
NSF 12-600, FY 2013
NSF 13-586, FY 2014
NSF 13-586 was the final solicitation that will be released for this program.

PI Meetings:
1st U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting(March 22-24, 2011, Woods Hole, MA)
2nd U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting(Sept. 18-20, 2013, Washington, DC)
3rd U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting (June 9-11, 2015, Woods Hole, MA – Tentative)

NSF media releases for the Ocean Acidification Program:

Press Release 10-186 NSF Awards Grants to Study Effects of Ocean Acidification

Discovery Blue Mussels "Hang On" Along Rocky Shores: For How Long?

Discovery - National Science Foundation (NSF) Discoveries - Trouble in Paradise: Ocean Acidification This Way Comes - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 12-179 - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Ocean Acidification: Finding New Answers Through National Science Foundation Research Grants - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 13-102 World Oceans Month Brings Mixed News for Oysters

Press Release 13-108 - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Natural Underwater Springs Show How Coral Reefs Respond to Ocean Acidification - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 13-148 Ocean acidification: Making new discoveries through National Science Foundation research grants

Press Release 13-148 - Video - News - Video - NSF Ocean Sciences Division Director David Conover answers questions about ocean acidification. - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 14-010 - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Palau's coral reefs surprisingly resistant to ocean acidification - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 14-116 - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Ocean Acidification: NSF awards $11.4 million in new grants to study effects on marine ecosystems - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

[ table of contents | back to top ]


Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

[ table of contents | back to top ]