Mean d15N of individual amino acids and bulk organic matter for five plankton size fractions

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/715977
Data Type: Cruise Results
Version: 1
Version Date: 2017-09-14

Project
» The Use of Nitrogen Isotopes of Amino Acids To Understand Marine Sedimentary 15N Records (Amino Acid Sediment 15N)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
McCarthy, Matthew D.University of California-Santa Cruz (UC Santa Cruz)Principal Investigator
Ake, HannahWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

Abstract
Mean d15N of individual amino acids and bulk organic matter for five plankton size fractions from R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa Malaspina_2011 in the Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean from January to March 2011


Coverage

Spatial Extent: Lat:24 Lon:-24
Temporal Extent: 2011-01 - 2011-03

Dataset Description

 Mean d15N of individual amino acids and bulk organic matter for five plankton size fractions.


Acquisition Description

Sampling

Plankton samples were obtained during Leg 8 of the Malaspina-2010 expedition on R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa (January-March 2011), on a transect predominantly along 24ºN, between the Canary Island and Florida. Briefly, plankton samples were collected by vertical tows of a microplankton net (40 µm mesh size) and a mesoplankton net (200 µm mesh size) through the upper 200 m of the water column. Sampling was between 10:00 and 16:00 h GMT. Plankton was separated into five size fractions (40–200, 200–500, 500–1000, 1000–2000 and 2000 µm) by gentle filtration of the samples by a graded series of nylon sieves (2000, 1000, 500, 200 and 40 µm). Large gelatinous organisms were removed before filtration. Aliquots for each size fraction were collected on pre-weighed glass-fiber filters, dried (60ºC, 48 h) and stored in a desiccator before determination of biomass (dry weight), carbon and nitrogen content and natural abundance of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes ashore. Nominal values of the individual size of organisms in each size fraction were estimated as the geometric mean of the values defining each size interval and expressed as carbon content (µg C) in a logarithmic scale

Bulk δ15N analysis

After determination of dry weight, finely ground aliquots of each size fraction were packed in tin capsules for elemental and stable isotope analysis by conversion into CO2 and N2 in an elemental analyzer (Carlo Erba CHNSO 1108) coupled to an isotope-ratio mass-spectrometer (Finnigan Mat Delta Plus).

Compound-specific amino acid δ15N analysis

Samples for CSI-AA were selected to span gradients in 15Nbulk values. We chose plankton from four sampling stations in each of the three zones (eastern, central and western regions).  Individual samples were then pooled (quantitatively, so that each subsample was represented equally in the final composite) to have enough material in each size fraction for CSI-AA. In total 15 samples in the transect were chosen for CSI-AA. Approximately 1 mg of total dry plankton material was then hydrolyzed for subsequent analysis.

The δ15N values of individual AAs were measured via GC-IRMS, after 6 N HCl acid hydrolysis and the formation of TFA ester derivatives following previously published methods.  Briefly, amino acids were liberated by hydrolysis (6 N HCl, 20 hr at 110uC) under nitrogen, and TFA derivatives subsequently prepared from free AA: isopropyl esters were made with a 1:5 mixture of Acetyl Chloride (AcCl):2-propanol (110uC, 60 minutes), and then acylated using a 1:3 mixture of Dichloromethane:Trifluroacetyl acetate (DCM:TFAA) (100uC, 15 minutes). Derivatized AAs were dissolved in DCM to a final ratio of approximately 2 mg of original dry sample to 250 ml DCM. After derivatization, samples were analyzed by a thermos Trace Ultra gas chromatograph coupled to a Finnegan Delta-Plus isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-IRMS). AAs were separated using a 50 m, 0.32 ID Hewlett Packard Ultra-1 column with 1 mm film thickness.  AAs were measured based on n = 4 injections, and the average mean deviations for individual AA d15N measurements across all sample replicates was 0.5%.

Under these conditions, we determined δ15N values for 12 AAs: glutamic acid + glutamine (Glx), aspartic acid + asparagine (Asp), alanine (Ala), Isoleucine (Ile), Leucine (Leu), Proline (Pro), valine (Val), glycine (Gly), serine (Ser), Lysine (Lys), phenylalanine (Phe), and Threonine (Thr). Each AA was run four times on the GC-IRMS..  AA values were categorized and presented in 3 groups, based on their relative 15N values changes with trophic transfer: the source AAs (Gly, Ser, Lys, Phe), the trophic AAs (Glx, Asp, Ala, Ile, Leu, Pro and Val), and one “metabolic” AA (Thr).

Trophic position and ΣV 

To calculate CSI-AA based TP of plankton we used the most widely used current equation and TEF value, based on the isotopic offset between Glx and Phe:

TP  = (δ15NGlx – δ15NPhe – 3.4)/7.6 +1

where δ15NGlx and δ15NPhe are measured values, +3.4‰ is the assumed isotopic difference between the Glx and Phe in primary producers, and +7.6‰ is the assumed 15N enrichment in Glx relative to Phe with each trophic transfer from food source to consumer (TEF value). The standard errors in the estimation of TP, computed by propagation of analytical error in the individual AA determinations, did not exceed 0.1 TP.

The δ15N value of total hydrolysable AAs (δ15NTHAA) is used as a proxy for total protein δ15N value, and was estimated as the molar-weighted average of individual δ15N values:

δ15NTHAA = Σ (δ15NAA * mol% AA)

where δ15NAA is the δ15N value of each individual AA measured and mol%AA is the molar percentage contribution of each AA. In our study we used the δ15N value of each individual AA and mol%AA were obtained from Lehman (2009).

The degradation index ΣV is a measure of the relative resynthesis of the original autotrophic AA pool in detritus or different organisms (plankton size fractions, in our case) was for each size individual fraction sample as the mean deviation of δ15N of individual trophic amino acid, from their average:

ΣV  = Σ (AAi – Avg trp) / n

Where AAi were individual δ15N amino acid values, Avg trp is the average value and n the total number of trophic amino acids.


Processing Description

Thermo-Finnigan Isodat software and Microsoft Excel 2013.

BCO-DMO Processing:
- changed column names to comply with BCO-DMO standards
- added columns for significant differences to capture the superscript letters that accompanied some data point. All added columns are named after the amino acid with "_significant_difference".
- combined some headers to capture the metadata used to describe several columns (example trophic_AA_Glx)
- changed > to greater than
- changed Σ to sigma


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Related Publications

Mompean, C., Bode, A., Gier, E., McCarthy, M.D. (2016). Bulk vs. amino acid stable N isotope estimations of metabolic status and contributions of nitrogen fixation to size-fractionated zooplankton biomass in the subtropical N Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 114, 137-148. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2016.05.005 https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2016.05.005.
General

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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
ZoneLocation where plankton size fractions were analyzed; The West Central or Eastern Zone. unitless
plankton_size_fractionPlankton size fraction range microns
Bulk_15N15N/14N isotopic ratio total sample per mil
Bulk_15N_significant_differenceSignificant difference; The significant differences between fractions for each zone are indicated with differenent letters (a b and c); Cases with no letters indicate no significant differences within the zones sampled. per mil
trophicAA_GlxGln+Glu d15N value per mil
trophicAA_Glx_significant_differenceSignificant difference; The significant differences between fractions for each zone are indicated with differenent letters (a b and c); Cases with no letters indicate no significant differences within the zones sampled. per mil
trophicAA_AspAspartic Acid + Asparagine d15N value per mil
trophicAA_Asp_significant_differenceSignificant difference; The significant differences between fractions for each zone are indicated with differenent letters (a b and c); Cases with no letters indicate no significant differences within the zones sampled. per mil
trophicAA_AlaAlanine d15N value per mil
trophicAA_Ala_significant_differenceSignificant difference; The significant differences between fractions for each zone are indicated with differenent letters (a b and c); Cases with no letters indicate no significant differences within the zones sampled. per mil
trophicAA_IleIsoleucine d15N value per mil
trophicAA_Ile_significant_differenceSignificant difference; The significant differences between fractions for each zone are indicated with differenent letters (a b and c); Cases with no letters indicate no significant differences within the zones sampled. per mil
trophicAA_LeuLeucine d15N value per mil
trophicAA_Leu_significant_differenceSignificant difference; The significant differences between fractions for each zone are indicated with differenent letters (a b and c); Cases with no letters indicate no significant differences within the zones sampled. per mil
trophicAA_ProProline d15N value per mil
trophicAA_Pro_significant_differenceSignificant difference; The significant differences between fractions for each zone are indicated with differenent letters (a b and c); Cases with no letters indicate no significant differences within the zones sampled. per mil
trophicAA_ValValine d15N value per mil
trophicAA_Val_significant_differenceSignificant difference; The significant differences between fractions for each zone are indicated with differenent letters (a b and c); Cases with no letters indicate no significant differences within the zones sampled. per mil
sourceAA_GlyGlycine d15N value per mil
sourceAA_Gly_significant_differenceSignificant difference; The significant differences between fractions for each zone are indicated with differenent letters (a b and c); Cases with no letters indicate no significant differences within the zones sampled. per mil
sourceAA_SerSerine d15N value per mil
sourceAA_Ser_significant_differenceSignificant difference; The significant differences between fractions for each zone are indicated with differenent letters (a b and c); Cases with no letters indicate no significant differences within the zones sampled. per mil
sourceAA_LysLysine d15N value per mil
sourceAA_Lys_significant_differenceSignificant difference; The significant differences between fractions for each zone are indicated with differenent letters (a b and c); Cases with no letters indicate no significant differences within the zones sampled. per mil
sourceAA_PhePhenylalanine d15N value per mil
sourceAA_Phe_significant_differenceSignificant difference; The significant differences between fractions for each zone are indicated with differenent letters (a b and c); Cases with no letters indicate no significant differences within the zones sampled. per mil
metabAA_ThrThreonine d15N value per mil
metabAA_Thr_significant_differenceSignificant difference; The significant differences between fractions for each zone are indicated with differenent letters (a b and c); Cases with no letters indicate no significant differences within the zones sampled. per mil
CSI_AA_TPTrophic Position unitless
CSI_AA_TP_significant_differenceSignificant difference; The significant differences between fractions for each zone are indicated with differenent letters (a b and c); Cases with no letters indicate no significant differences within the zones sampled. unitless
CSI_AA_sigmaVCSIAA Degradation Parameter unitless
CSI_AA_sigmaV_significant_differenceSignificant difference; The significant differences between fractions for each zone are indicated with differenent letters (a b and c); Cases with no letters indicate no significant differences within the zones sampled. unitless


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
PDZ Europa 20-20 isotope ratio mass spectrometer
Generic Instrument Name
Isotope-ratio Mass Spectrometer
Dataset-specific Description
Used with PDZ Europa ANCA-GSL elemental analyzer
Generic Instrument Description
The Isotope-ratio Mass Spectrometer is a particular type of mass spectrometer used to measure the relative abundance of isotopes in a given sample (e.g. VG Prism II Isotope Ratio Mass-Spectrometer).

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS)
Generic Instrument Name
Isotope-ratio Mass Spectrometer
Dataset-specific Description
Used with Thermo Trace GOLD GC
Generic Instrument Description
The Isotope-ratio Mass Spectrometer is a particular type of mass spectrometer used to measure the relative abundance of isotopes in a given sample (e.g. VG Prism II Isotope Ratio Mass-Spectrometer).

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Water Temperature Sensor
Generic Instrument Name
Water Temperature Sensor
Dataset-specific Description
Used to measure temperature
Generic Instrument Description
General term for an instrument that measures the temperature of the water with which it is in contact (thermometer).

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Thermo Trace GOLD GC
Generic Instrument Name
Gas Chromatograph
Dataset-specific Description
Used with MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) via a GC-III combustion (C) interface (Thermo-Finnigan Corporation)
Generic Instrument Description
Instrument separating gases, volatile substances, or substances dissolved in a volatile solvent by transporting an inert gas through a column packed with a sorbent to a detector for assay. (from SeaDataNet, BODC)

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
pH sensor
Generic Instrument Name
pH Sensor
Dataset-specific Description
Used to measure pH
Generic Instrument Description
General term for an instrument that measures the pH or how acidic or basic a solution is.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Light meter
Generic Instrument Name
Light Meter
Dataset-specific Description
Used to measure irradiance
Generic Instrument Description
Light meters are instruments that measure light intensity. Common units of measure for light intensity are umol/m2/s or uE/m2/s (micromoles per meter squared per second or microEinsteins per meter squared per second). (example: LI-COR 250A)

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Salinity sensor
Generic Instrument Name
Salinity Sensor
Dataset-specific Description
Used to measure salinity
Generic Instrument Description
Category of instrument that simultaneously measures electrical conductivity and temperature in the water column to provide temperature and salinity data.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
PDZ Europa ANCA-GSL elemental analyzer
Generic Instrument Name
Elemental Analyzer
Dataset-specific Description
Interfaced to a PDZ Europa 20-20 isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Sercon Ltd., Cheshire, UK)
Generic Instrument Description
Instruments that quantify carbon, nitrogen and sometimes other elements by combusting the sample at very high temperature and assaying the resulting gaseous oxides. Usually used for samples including organic material.


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Deployments

Malaspina_2011

Website
Platform
R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa
Start Date
2011-01-28
End Date
2011-03-09


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Project Information

The Use of Nitrogen Isotopes of Amino Acids To Understand Marine Sedimentary 15N Records (Amino Acid Sediment 15N)

Coverage: California Margin , Santa Barbara Basin , CA current system, Eastern Tropical Pacific


The bioavailability of nutrients plays a crucial role in oceanic biological productivity, the carbon cycle, and climate change. The global ocean inventory of nitrogen (N) is determined by the balance of N-fixation (sources) and denitrification (sinks). In this three-year project, a researcher from the University of California, Santa Cruz, will focus on developing compound-specific N isotope (d15N) analysis of amino acids as a new tool for understanding N source and transformation of organic matter in paleo-reservoirs. The offsets in the isotopic ratios of individual amino acid groups may yield information about trophic transfer, heterotrophic microbial reworking, and autotrophic versus heterotrophic sources. By measuring and comparing the bulk and amino acid d15N in size-fractioned samples from plankton tows, sediments traps, and multi-cores in oxic and suboxic depositional environments, the researcher will: (1) Provide a proxy of the d15N of average exported photoautotrophic organic matter; and (2) Provide a new level of detail into sedimentary organic N degradation and preservation.

Broader impacts:
This project will improve understanding of the fundamental underpinnings and behaviors of d15N amino acid patterns and how they behave in contrasting sedimentary environments, while also developing a potential paleoceanographic proxy. Funding will support a graduate student and undergraduate research at the institution. The researcher will also conduct community outreach in the form of a workshop/tutorial on the proxy development.



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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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