Dissolved nutrients from Espelandsvegen Fjord, Bergen Norway, May 2017

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/752737
Data Type: Other Field Results, experimental
Version: 1
Version Date: 2021-01-06

Project
» Light-dependent regulation of coccolithophore host-virus interactions: mechanistic insights and implications for structuring infection in the surface ocean (Light-dependent host virus interactions)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Thamatrakoln, KimberleeRutgers UniversityPrincipal Investigator
Bidle, Kay D.Rutgers UniversityCo-Principal Investigator
Copley, NancyWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

Abstract
This dataset includes dissolved nutrient concentrations from seawater collected in the Norwegian National Mesocosm Centre at the Espegrend (Espeland) Marine Biological Station near Bergen, Norway, in May 2017.


Coverage

Spatial Extent: Lat:60.27083 Lon:60.269602
Temporal Extent: 2017-05-08 - 2017-05-31

Dataset Description

This dataset includes dissolved nutrient concentrations from seawater collected in the Norwegian National Mesocosm Centre at the Espegrend (Espeland) Marine Biological Station near Bergen, Norway, in May 2017.


Acquisition Description

Samples for dissolved nutrient analysis were collected by filtering through a pre-combusted GF/F filter (pore size ~ 0.7 µm) into acid washed Falcon tubes. Samples were frozen at -20°C and analyzed for nitrate+nitrite, ammonium, and orthophosphate at the Rutgers University Nutrient Analysis Facility.


Processing Description

BCO-DMO Processing Notes:
- added conventional header with dataset name, PI name, version date
- modified parameter names to conform with BCO-DMO naming conventions
- re-formatted date from d-Mon-yy to yyyy-mm-dd
- replaced commas with semicolons
- reordered columns; sorted records by Treatment, Bag#, Depth
- changed column name Depth to Depth_description (shallow, deep) and added column Depth (1, 5)


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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
Treatmentnutrient amendment and/or manipulation: Fjord = water sampled directly from fjord adjacent to mesocosm bags Ambient = unamended P-limited=N:P (66:1; 4 µmol L-1 sodium nitrate:0.06 µmol L-1 sodium phosphate) added on 13-May, 14-May, 15-May- Redfield = N:P (16:1; 4 µmol L-1 sodium nitrate:0.25 µmol L-1 sodium phosphate ) added on 13-May, 14-May, 15-May Redfield/Shaded = N:P (16:1; 4 µmol L-1 sodium nitrate:0.25 µmol L-1 sodium phosphate) added on 13-May, 14-May, 15-May-; bags shaded to 20% surface irradiance on 24-May-2017) unitless
BagBag # unitless
DateDate formatted as yyyy-mm-dd unitless
Nitrate_Nitrite_uMnitrate plus nitrite concentration; bd = below detection micromol/liter
Ammonium_uMammonium concentration; bd = below detection micromol/liter
Orthophosphate_uMorthophosphate concentration; bd = below detection micromol/liter
Depthsampling depth meters
Depth_descriptiondepth of sampling: surface = ~1 m; deep = ~5 m unitless


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Lachat QuickChem8500 Nutrient Analyzer Flow Injection Analysis System
Generic Instrument Name
Nutrient Autoanalyzer
Generic Instrument Description
Nutrient Autoanalyzer is a generic term used when specific type, make and model were not specified. In general, a Nutrient Autoanalyzer is an automated flow-thru system for doing nutrient analysis (nitrate, ammonium, orthophosphate, and silicate) on seawater samples.


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Deployments

MesoHux_2017

Website
Platform
National Mesocosm Centre
Start Date
2017-05-01
End Date
2017-05-31
Description
Mesocosm experiments on bacteria and viruses.


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Project Information

Light-dependent regulation of coccolithophore host-virus interactions: mechanistic insights and implications for structuring infection in the surface ocean (Light-dependent host virus interactions)

Coverage: Norwegian National Mesocosm Centre at the Espegrend Marine Biological Station (60 16'25N, 5 14'10E)


Description from the NSF award abstract:
Phytoplankton, microscopic photosynthetic algae, form the basis of marine foodwebs and are responsible for producing nearly half the oxygen on the planet, yet represent <1% of Earth's biomass. Steady-state maintenance of a high production to biomass ratio implies that, on average, these organisms grow, die and are replaced once every week. Predatory infection by viruses has emerged as the primary mechanism responsible for the high mortality rates of phytoplankton populations. Despite the importance of viral mortality in structuring marine microbial ecosystems, little is known about the fundamental mechanisms that regulate host-virus interactions. Phytoplankton are inherently dependent on light and photosynthesis. Given the need for host resources, the viruses that infect these organisms must, therefore, also fundamentally depend on light and photosynthesis. This project will explore the relationship between light and viral infection to develop a framework for how light influences viral infection and phytoplankton mortality in the surface ocean. The widespread phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi, and its associated virus, Coccolithovirus, has emerged as the prominent model system for investigating algal-viral interactions due to its ecological relevance and collective mechanistic insight from numerous physiological, molecular, biochemical, genomic, and field studies. Laboratory-based culture studies will be used to elucidate the role light plays in mediating infection in E. huxleyi, specifically addressing whether light is required for viral infection as well as identifying the light-regulated host metabolic processes that viruses may co-opt for successful infection and production. These observations will then be extended to natural populations using manipulative, field-based experiments to elucidate the role light plays in structuring infection in the surface ocean. This project provides hands-on training for a Rutgers University undergraduate student, as well as a postdoctoral researcher. To facilitate ocean literacy, researchers will work with the Education and Public Outreach staff and Tilapia Film, LLC to develop an educational video based on research findings and the Next Generation Science Standards. This video, aimed at middle, high school, and undergraduate students, expands on an already successful video series that highlights scientific practices through real research investigations. It will be open access and disseminated through existing connections to the New Jersey Science Teacher Association, the National Science Teachers Association, the National Marine Educators Association, and the National Biology Teachers Association. 

Predatory infection by viruses is the primary mechanism responsible for the high lysis rates observed in phytoplankton populations. As the most abundant biological entities in aquatic environments, viruses turn over more than a quarter of the photosynthetically-fixed carbon, thereby fueling microbial foodwebs and short-circuiting carbon export to higher trophic levels and the deep sea. Despite its importance, estimates of viral-induced mortality are rarely included in global models of net primary productivity and deep carbon export, in part because we lack a mechanistic understanding of the fundamental factors that regulate host-virus interactions. For viruses infecting obligate photoautotrophs, there is an inherent and fundamental interaction between light and the infection process, as well as a dependence on light-regulated host metabolic processes that may be required for viral replication. Using the model algal host, Emiliania huxleyi and its associated Coccolithovirus, this project addresses the hypotheses that: 1) infection dynamics in E. huxleyi are driven through light-dependent processes, specifically that light mediates viral entry and replication, and that viruses redirect host energy to maximize viral replication, and 2) light increases viral decay relieving hosts of viral pressure. This mechanistic, cellular framework will then be used to elucidate the role light plays in structuring infection in natural coccolithophore populations using manipulative field-based experiments. Given that light is one of the most fundamental, readily, and easily measured features of the ocean, this work will ultimately provide a context for modeling the biogeochemical impact of viral infection in the global ocean.



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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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