CTD data from the GTC rosette on the US GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect (PMT) cruise (GP15) from September to November 2018

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/778332
Data Type: Cruise Results
Version: 2
Version Date: 2020-07-22

» US GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect (U.S. GEOTRACES PMT)

Cutter, GregoryOld Dominion University (ODU)Principal Investigator
Casciotti, Karen L.Stanford UniversityCo-Principal Investigator, Contact
Lam, Phoebe J.University of California-Santa Cruz (UC Santa Cruz)Co-Principal Investigator
Rauch, ShannonWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

CTD data from the GTC rosette on the US GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect (PMT) cruise (GP15) from September to November 2018.


Spatial Extent: N:56.0583 E:-151.9937 S:-19.9999 W:-156.9622
Temporal Extent: 2018-09-24 - 2018-11-22

Acquisition Description

The description below is excerpted from the GP15 Cruise Report (PDF). Refer to cruise report for more information, including the complete problem report and CTD processing details.

The Cutter (ODU) group provided the GEOTRACES Trace Element Carousel sampling system (GTC), including the Dynacon winch with 7300 m of Vectran cable with conductors, clean lab, and Seabird carousel/CTD with 24 12L GO-FLO bottles (and 11 spares). In total, 72 GTC hydrocasts were conducted and 2 GO-FLOs per depth were triggered (3 per depth for super stations to accommodate water requests), with subsequent filtration using Acropak capsules (0.2 um). An average of 10 sample bottles were filled from each Acropakfiltered GO-FLO, but this number varied based on station type and depth. For the 35 stations occupied on Leg 1 and Leg 2, which includes shelf, slope, demi, full, super, and "bonus" stations between 56°N and 20°S, this represented the acquisition of upwards of 15,500 trace element samples.

The CTD data acquisition system consisted of an SBE-11+ (V2) deck unit and a networked generic PC workstation running Windows 7. SBE SeaSave7 v. software was used for data acquisition and to close bottles on the rosette.

Processing Description

The description below is excerpted from the GP15 Cruise Report (PDF). Refer to cruise report for more information, including the complete problem report and CTD processing details.

Shipboard CTD data processing was performed after deployment using SIO/ODF python CTD processing software v. 0.3. CTD acquisition data were copied onto a OS X system, and then processed. CTD data at bottle trips were extracted, and a 2-decibar down-cast pressure series created. A number of issues were encountered during GP15 ODF that directly impacted CTD analysis. Issues that directly impacted bottle closures, such as slipping guide rings, were detailed in the Underwater Sampling Package section of the ODF report.

Plots of CTD casts are attached as Supplemental File, "GTC_CTD_Plots.zip".

_FLAG_W columns follow the WOCE Hydrographic Program (WHP) quality flag definitions.

The WHP quality codes for the water bottle itself are:
1 = Bottle information unavailable.
2 = No problems noted.
3 = Leaking.
4 = Did not trip correctly.
5 = Not reported.
6 = Significant discrepancy in measured values between Gerard and Niskin bottles.
7 = Unknown problem.
8 = Pair did not trip correctly. Note that the Niskin bottle can trip at an unplanned depth while the Gerard trips correctly and vice versa.
9 = Samples not drawn from this bottle.
(Flags 6, 7, and 8 apply primarily to large volume samplers.)

The WHP bottle parameter data quality codes are:
1 = Sample for this measurement was drawn from water bottle but analysis not received. Note that if water is drawn for any measurement from a water bottle, the quality flag for that parameter must be set equal to 1 initially to ensure that all water samples are accounted for.
2 = Acceptable measurement.
3 = Questionable measurement.
4 = Bad measurement.
5 = Not reported.
6 = Mean of replicate measurements (Number of replicates should be specified).
7 = Manual chromatographic peak measurement.
8 = Irregular digital chromatographic peak integration.
9 = Sample not drawn for this measurement from this bottle.

The WHP CTD data quality codes are:
1 = Not calibrated.
2 = Acceptable measurement.
3 = Questionable measurement.
4 = Bad measurement.
5 = Not reported.
6 = Interpolated over >2 dbar interval.
7 = Despiked.
8 = Not assigned for CTD data.
9 = Not sampled.

BCO-DMO Processing:
- parsed file headers to obtain STNNBR, CASTNO, DATE, TIME, LATITUDE, LONGITUDE, and DEPTH;
- concatenated data files for separate casts into one dataset;
- 2020-07-22: joined to GP15 event log to obtain EVENTNO (matching values on STNNBR + CASTNO); added ISO8601 date/time format.

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EXPOCODEExpedition code unitless
SECT_IDSection ID unitless
INSTRUMENT_IDInstrument ID number from CTD file header unitless
EVENTNOEvent number; obtained from the cruise event log unitless
STNNBRStation number; from CTD file header unitless
CASTNOCast Identifier; from CTD file header unitless
DATEDate from CTD file header; format: yyyymmdd unitless
TIMETime from CTD file header; format: HHMM unitless
LATITUDELatitude from CTD file header; positive values = North decimal degrees
LONGITUDELongitude from CTD file header; positive values = East decimal degrees
DEPTHBottom depth; from CTD file header meters (m)
Event_DescripEvent description; obtained from the cruise event log unitless
CTDPRSSample/sensor pressure decibars
CTDPRS_FLAG_WWHP quality flag for CTDPRS unitless
CTDTMPTemperature from CTD sensor in the ITS-90 convention degrees Celsius
CTDTMP_FLAG_WWHP quality flag for CTDTMP unitless
CTDSALPractical salinity from CTD sensor on the PSS-1978 scale psu
CTDSAL_FLAG_WWHP quality flag for CTDSAL unitless
CTDOXYConcentration of dissolved oxygen from sensor on CTD micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
CTDOXY_FLAG_WWHP quality flag for CTDOXY unitless
CTDXMISSTransmissometer volts
CTDXMISS_FLAG_WWHP quality flag for CTDXMISS unitless
CTDFLUORFluorescence from CTD sensor volts
CTDFLUOR_FLAG_WWHP quality flag for CTDFLUOR unitless
CTDRINKOVoltage from RINKO dissolved oxygen sensor volts
CTDRINKO_FLAG_WWHP quality flag for CTDRINKO unitless
ISO_DateTime_UTCDate and time (UTC) formatted to ISO8601 standard: YYYY-MM-DDThh:mmZ unitless

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Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
GO-FLO Bottle
Dataset-specific Description
Seabird carousel/CTD with 24 12L GO-FLO bottles (and 11 spares)
Generic Instrument Description
GO-FLO bottle cast used to collect water samples for pigment, nutrient, plankton, etc. The GO-FLO sampling bottle is specially designed to avoid sample contamination at the surface, internal spring contamination, loss of sample on deck (internal seals), and exchange of water from different depths.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
CTD Sea-Bird
Generic Instrument Description
Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) sensor package from SeaBird Electronics, no specific unit identified. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known. See also other SeaBird instruments listed under CTD. More information from Sea-Bird Electronics.

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R/V Roger Revelle
Start Date
End Date


R/V Roger Revelle
Start Date
End Date

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Project Information

US GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect (U.S. GEOTRACES PMT)

Coverage: Pacific Meridional Transect along 152W (GP15)

A 60-day research cruise took place in 2018 along a transect form Alaska to Tahiti at 152° W. A description of the project titled "Collaborative Research: Management and implementation of the US GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect", funded by NSF, is below. Further project information is available on the US GEOTRACES website and on the cruise blog. A detailed cruise report is also available as a PDF. Description from NSF award abstract: GEOTRACES is a global effort in the field of Chemical Oceanography in which the United States plays a major role. The goal of the GEOTRACES program is to understand the distributions of many elements and their isotopes in the ocean. Until quite recently, these elements could not be measured at a global scale. Understanding the distributions of these elements and isotopes will increase the understanding of processes that shape their distributions and also the processes that depend on these elements. For example, many "trace elements" (elements that are present in very low amounts) are also important for life, and their presence or absence can play a vital role in the population of marine ecosystems. This project will launch the next major U.S. GEOTRACES expedition in the Pacific Ocean between Alaska and Tahiti. The award made here would support all of the major infrastructure for this expedition, including the research vessel, the sampling equipment, and some of the core oceanographic measurements. This project will also support the personnel needed to lead the expedition and collect the samples. This project would support the essential sampling operations and infrastructure for the U.S. GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect along 152° W to support a large variety of individual science projects on trace element and isotope (TEI) biogeochemistry that will follow. Thus, the major objectives of this management proposal are: (1) plan and coordinate a 60 day research cruise in 2018; (2) obtain representative samples for a wide variety of TEIs using a conventional CTD/rosette, GEOTRACES Trace Element Sampling Systems, and in situ pumps; (3) acquire conventional CTD hydrographic data along with discrete samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, algal pigments, and dissolved nutrients at micro- and nanomolar levels; (4) ensure that proper QA/QC protocols are followed and reported, as well as fulfilling all GEOTRACES intercalibration protocols; (5) prepare and deliver all hydrographic data to the GEOTRACES Data Assembly Centre (via the US BCO-DMO data center); and (6) coordinate all cruise communications between investigators, including preparation of a hydrographic report/publication. This project would also provide baseline measurements of TEIs in the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone (~7.5°N-17°N, ~155°W-115°W) where large-scale deep sea mining is planned. Environmental impact assessments are underway in partnership with the mining industry, but the effect of mining activities on TEIs in the water column is one that could be uniquely assessed by the GEOTRACES community. In support of efforts to communicate the science to a wide audience the investigators will recruit an early career freelance science journalist with interests in marine science and oceanography to participate on the cruise and do public outreach, photography and/or videography, and social media from the ship, as well as to submit articles about the research to national media. The project would also support several graduate students.

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Program Information


Coverage: Global

GEOTRACES is a SCOR sponsored program; and funding for program infrastructure development is provided by the U.S. National Science Foundation. GEOTRACES gained momentum following a special symposium, S02: Biogeochemical cycling of trace elements and isotopes in the ocean and applications to constrain contemporary marine processes (GEOSECS II), at a 2003 Goldschmidt meeting convened in Japan. The GEOSECS II acronym referred to the Geochemical Ocean Section Studies To determine full water column distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes, including their concentration, chemical speciation, and physical form, along a sufficient number of sections in each ocean basin to establish the principal relationships between these distributions and with more traditional hydrographic parameters; * To evaluate the sources, sinks, and internal cycling of these species and thereby characterize more completely the physical, chemical and biological processes regulating their distributions, and the sensitivity of these processes to global change; and * To understand the processes that control the concentrations of geochemical species used for proxies of the past environment, both in the water column and in the substrates that reflect the water column. GEOTRACES will be global in scope, consisting of ocean sections complemented by regional process studies. Sections and process studies will combine fieldwork, laboratory experiments and modelling. Beyond realizing the scientific objectives identified above, a natural outcome of this work will be to build a community of marine scientists who understand the processes regulating trace element cycles sufficiently well to exploit this knowledge reliably in future interdisciplinary studies. Expand "Projects" below for information about and data resulting from individual US GEOTRACES research projects.

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Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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