Bottle file from Leg 2 (Hilo, HI to Papeete, French Polynesia) of the US GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect (PMT) cruise (GP15, RR1815) on R/V Roger Revelle from October to November 2018

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/824867
Data Type: Cruise Results
Version: 5
Version Date: 2021-05-05

Project
» US GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect (U.S. GEOTRACES PMT)

Program
» U.S. GEOTRACES (U.S. GEOTRACES)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Casciotti, Karen L.Stanford UniversityPrincipal Investigator, Contact
Cutter, Gregory A.Old Dominion University (ODU)Co-Principal Investigator
Lam, Phoebe J.University of California-Santa Cruz (UC Santa Cruz)Co-Principal Investigator
Rauch, ShannonWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

Abstract
Bottle data collected by the GTC (GEOTRACES Trace element Carousel) and ODF (Ocean Data Facility) CTD rosettes, underway, and tow fish on the US GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect (PMT) cruise (GP15). Leg 2 (RR1815) took place from 25 October to 23 November 2018 on R/V Roger Revelle. Data from the different sampling systems was compiled into one file by ODF. For complete acquisition and processing information, refer to the cruise report.


Coverage

Spatial Extent: N:18.9064 E:-151.9862 S:-20 W:-155.258
Temporal Extent: 2018-10-25 - 2018-11-23

Dataset Description

Bottle data collected by the GTC (GEOTRACES Trace element Carousel) and ODF (Ocean Data Facility) CTD rosettes, underway, and tow fish on Leg 2 of the US GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect (PMT) cruise (GP15) from October to November 2018. Data from the different sampling systems was compiled into one file by ODF. For complete acquisition and processing information, refer to the cruise report (PDF).


Processing Description

Unit conversion for nutrients and oxygen:
Nutrients and oxygen were measured onboard the ship in umol/L, but are reported in umol/kg in this dataset. The ODF group used the following protocols for conversion:

For converting nutrient and oxygen measurements to units of umol/kg, density was calculated according to EOS-80, using the best available salinities (either bottle or CTD, depending on quality flag in that order). The source for temperature depends on the analyte. For oxygen, the draw temperature at the time of collection was used for density calculations (Culberson, 1991; WHP Operations and Methods, Dissolved Oxygen). For nutrients, the measured analytical lab temperature was used for density calculations (Becker et al., 2021; GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography Manual: The precise and accurate determination of dissolved inorganic nutrients in seawater, using Continuous Flow Analysis methods). The lab temperature was measured at the location of the instrument, and the samples themselves were allowed to come to lab temperature before analysis.

Quality Flags:
FLAG columns follow the WOCE Hydrographic Program (WHP) quality flag definitions.

The WHP quality codes for the water bottle itself are:
1 = Bottle information unavailable.
2 = No problems noted.
3 = Leaking.
4 = Did not trip correctly.
5 = Not reported.
6 = Significant discrepancy in measured values between Gerard and Niskin bottles.
7 = Unknown problem.
8 = Pair did not trip correctly. Note that the Niskin bottle can trip at an unplanned depth while the Gerard trips correctly and vice versa.
9 = Samples not drawn from this bottle.
(Flags 6, 7, and 8 apply primarily to large volume samplers.)

The WHP bottle parameter data quality codes are:
1 = Sample for this measurement was drawn from water bottle but analysis not received. Note that if water is drawn for any measurement from a water bottle, the quality flag for that parameter must be set equal to 1 initially to ensure that all water samples are accounted for.
2 = Acceptable measurement.
3 = Questionable measurement.
4 = Bad measurement.
5 = Not reported.
6 = Mean of replicate measurements (Number of replicates should be specified).
7 = Manual chromatographic peak measurement.
8 = Irregular digital chromatographic peak integration.
9 = Sample not drawn for this measurement from this bottle.

The WHP CTD data quality codes are:
1 = Not calibrated.
2 = Acceptable measurement.
3 = Questionable measurement.
4 = Bad measurement.
5 = Not reported.
6 = Interpolated over >2 dbar interval.
7 = Despiked.
8 = Not assigned for CTD data.
9 = Not sampled.

BCO-DMO Processing:
- changed time format to hhmm;
- added ISO8601 date/time column;
- filled in missing values with "nd";
- replaced -999 and -999.000 with "nd";
- Version history:
  - 2021-05-05 (v5; current) - replaced with file received 2021-05-03, which includes several corrections/edits.
  - 2020-09-22 (v4) - from original file named "33RR20180918_hy1_v5_door_barcodes.xlsx"; contains GEOTRACES DOoR-formatted names; splits the data into one file per leg.
  - 2020-03-02 (v3) - from original file named "33RR20180918_hy1_v5.xlsx" submitted on 02-March-2020.
  - 2019-10-22 (v2) - from original file named "33RR20180918_hy1_v4_pjl.xlsx" submitted on 2019-10-14.
  - 2019-09-25 (v1) - from original file named "33RR20180918_hy1_v3.csv" submitted on 2019-09-10.


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Related Publications

Becker, S., Aoyama, M., Woodward, E. M. S., Bakker, K., Coverly, S., Mahaffey, C., & Tanhua, T. (2019). GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography Nutrient Manual: The precise and accurate determination of dissolved inorganic nutrients in seawater, using Continuous Flow Analysis methods. GO-SHIP Program and SCOR. https://doi.org/10.25607/OBP-555
Methods
Culberson, C. H. 1991. Dissolved oxygen. In: WHP Operations and Methods. WOCE Hydrographic Office Report. WOCE Hydrographic Program Office, Woods Hole, MA.
Methods

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Related Datasets

Continues
Casciotti, K. L., Cutter, G. A., Lam, P. J. (2021) Bottle file from Leg 1 (Seattle, WA to Hilo, HI) of the US GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect (PMT) cruise (GP15, RR1814) on R/V Roger Revelle from September to October 2018. Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). (Version 6) Version Date 2021-05-05 doi:10.26008/1912/bco-dmo.777951.6 [view at BCO-DMO]
Relationship Description: GP15 was made up of two cruise legs, RR1814 (Leg 1) and RR1815 (Leg 2).

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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
EXPOCODEExpedition code unitless
SECT_IDSection ID unitless
STNNBRStation number unitless
CASTNOCast Identifier unitless
SAMPNOSample number unitless
BTLNBRBottle Number unitless
BTLNBR_FLAG_WBottle quality flag; see WHP quality codes for the water bottle itself unitless
GEOTRC_EVENTNOGEOTRACES Event number unitless
GEOTRC_SAMPNOGEOTRACES Sample number unitless
DATEDate; format: yyyymmdd unitless
TIMETime; format: HHMM unitless
LATITUDELatitude; positive values = North decimal degrees
LONGITUDELongitude; positive values = East decimal degrees
DEPTHBottom depth meters (m)
CTDPRSSample/sensor pressure decibars
CTDTMPTemperature from CTD sensor in the ITS-90 convention degrees Celsius
CTDSALPractical salinity from CTD sensor on the PSS-1978 scale psu
CTDSAL_FLAG_WCTDSAL flag unitless
Sigma0Sigma theta kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3)
REFTMPReference temperature; ITS-90 degrees Celsius
REFTMP_FLAG_WREFTMP flag unitless
BTL_DATEDate of bottle firing; format: yyyymmdd unitless
BTL_TIMETime of bottle firing: format: HHMM unitless
BTL_ISO_DateTime_UTCDate and time (UTC) of bottle firing formatted to ISO8601 standard: YYYY-MM-DDThh:mmZ yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm'Z'
BTL_LATLatitude of bottle firing; positive values = North decimal degrees
BTL_LONLongitude of bottle firiing; positive values = East decimal degrees
SILICATE_D_CONC_BOTTLE_3fot83Concentration of dissolved silicate, samples may or may not have been filtered micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_SILICATE_D_CONC_BOTTLE_3fot83Quality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
PHOSPHATE_D_CONC_BOTTLE_d0rgavConcentration of dissolved phosphate, samples may or may not have been filtered micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_PHOSPHATE_D_CONC_BOTTLE_d0rgavQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
NITRATE_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bugat8Concentration of dissolved NITRATE, samples may or may not have been filtered micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_NITRATE_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bugat8Quality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
NITRITE_D_CONC_BOTTLE_sxduhhConcentration of dissolved NITRITE, samples may or may not have been filtered micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_NITRITE_D_CONC_BOTTLE_sxduhhQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
OXYGEN_D_CONC_BOTTLE_n41f8bConcentration of dissolved oxygen from a bottle sample micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_OXYGEN_D_CONC_BOTTLE_n41f8bQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
SALINITY_D_CONC_BOTTLE_zva7jmPractical salinity from bottle sample on the PSS-1978 scale psu
Flag_SALINITY_D_CONC_BOTTLE_zva7jmQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
SILICATE_D_CONC_FISH_7yvjjvConcentration of dissolved silicate, samples may or may not have been filtered micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_SILICATE_D_CONC_FISH_7yvjjvQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
PHOSPHATE_D_CONC_FISH_vdvft4Concentration of dissolved phosphate, samples may or may not have been filtered micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_PHOSPHATE_D_CONC_FISH_vdvft4Quality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
NITRATE_D_CONC_FISH_0w2yqgConcentration of dissolved NITRATE, samples may or may not have been filtered micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_NITRATE_D_CONC_FISH_0w2yqgQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
NITRITE_D_CONC_FISH_txbmxdConcentration of dissolved NITRITE, samples may or may not have been filtered micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_NITRITE_D_CONC_FISH_txbmxdQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
SALINITY_D_CONC_FISH_yp29upPractical salinity from a towed fish sample on the PSS-1978 scale psu
Flag_SALINITY_D_CONC_FISH_yp29upQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
SILICATE_D_CONC_PUMP_nttq7zConcentration of dissolved silicate in a water sample collected using a bottle attached to a pump, samples may or may not have been filtered micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_SILICATE_D_CONC_PUMP_nttq7zQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
PHOSPHATE_D_CONC_PUMP_l3cyv3Concentration of dissolved phosphate in a water sample collected using a bottle attached to a pump, samples may or may not have been filtered micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_PHOSPHATE_D_CONC_PUMP_l3cyv3Quality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
NITRATE_D_CONC_PUMP_cm2gtkConcentration of dissolved NITRATE in a water sample collected using a bottle attached to a pump, samples may or may not have been filtered micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_NITRATE_D_CONC_PUMP_cm2gtkQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
NITRITE_D_CONC_PUMP_ggojecConcentration of dissolved NITRITE in a water sample collected using a bottle attached to a pump, samples may or may not have been filtered micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_NITRITE_D_CONC_PUMP_ggojecQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
OXYGEN_D_CONC_PUMP_vehiolConcentration of dissolved oxygen from a bottle attached to a pump micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_OXYGEN_D_CONC_PUMP_vehiolQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
SALINITY_D_CONC_PUMP_8noyqgPractical salinity on the PSS-1978 scale psu
Flag_SALINITY_D_CONC_PUMP_8noyqgQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
SILICATE_D_CONC_UWAY_ajega0Concentration of dissolved silicate, samples may or may not have been filtered micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_SILICATE_D_CONC_UWAY_ajega0Quality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
PHOSPHATE_D_CONC_UWAY_f1jl3iConcentration of dissolved phosphate, samples may or may not have been filtered micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_PHOSPHATE_D_CONC_UWAY_f1jl3iQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
NITRATE_D_CONC_UWAY_mvcqwuConcentration of dissolved NITRATE, samples may or may not have been filtered micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_NITRATE_D_CONC_UWAY_mvcqwuQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
NITRITE_D_CONC_UWAY_7caiyoConcentration of dissolved NITRITE, samples may or may not have been filtered micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_NITRITE_D_CONC_UWAY_7caiyoQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
OXYGEN_D_CONC_UWAY_ulgjidConcentration of dissolved oxygen from a ship's underway seawater sampling system micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
Flag_OXYGEN_D_CONC_UWAY_ulgjidQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
SALINITY_D_CONC_UWAY_fwcxbmPractical salinity from a seawater sample collected using the ship's underway sampling system on the PSS-1978 scale psu
Flag_SALINITY_D_CONC_UWAY_fwcxbmQuality flag; WHP bottle parameter data quality code unitless
CTDRINKOVoltage from RINKO dissolved oxygen sensor volts
CTDRINKO_FLAG_WCTDRINKO quality flag unitless
CTDFLUORFluorescence from CTD sensor volts
CTDFLUOR_FLAG_WCTDFLUOR quality flag unitless
CTDXMISSTransmissometer volts
CTDXMISS_FLAG_WCTDXMISS quality flag unitless
CTDOXYConcentration of dissolved oxygen from sensor on CTD micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
CTDOXY_FLAG_WCTDOXY quality flag unitless


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
GO-FLO Bottle
Generic Instrument Description
GO-FLO bottle cast used to collect water samples for pigment, nutrient, plankton, etc. The GO-FLO sampling bottle is specially designed to avoid sample contamination at the surface, internal spring contamination, loss of sample on deck (internal seals), and exchange of water from different depths.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
Niskin bottle
Generic Instrument Description
A Niskin bottle (a next generation water sampler based on the Nansen bottle) is a cylindrical, non-metallic water collection device with stoppers at both ends. The bottles can be attached individually on a hydrowire or deployed in 12, 24, or 36 bottle Rosette systems mounted on a frame and combined with a CTD. Niskin bottles are used to collect discrete water samples for a range of measurements including pigments, nutrients, plankton, etc.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
GeoFish Towed near-Surface Sampler
Generic Instrument Description
The GeoFish towed sampler is a custom designed near surface (

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
Rinko III ARO-CAV Oxygen Sensor
Dataset-specific Description
A RINKO III (ARO-CAV) optical dissolved oxygen sensor was deployed on this cruise. See the following documents for more information: ARO-CAV0296_170410.pdf (calibration certificate provided by ODF)RinkoIII_Manual.pdf (Rinko manual provided by ODF)
Generic Instrument Description
The RINKO III is a fast-response optical dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature sensor. The DO sensor is coated with photostimulable phosphor (PSP) on the outside of the pressure-resistant acrylic optical window, measuring phosphorescence quenching phase shift. The excitation blue LED pulse generates a red phosphorescence pulse, which in turn has an inverse correlation with the oxygen partial pressure in the water. It is an analogue output version. It has a response time of less than 1 second in air, enabling dissolved oxygen measurements with continuous profiling at high speeds. The dissolved oxygen sensor has a non-linear accuracy of +/-2% of full scale (at 1atm, 25 deg C) and the temperature sensor +/-0.02 deg C. It has a pressure rating of 7000 m. This device is made by JFE Advantech Co. Ltd.


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Deployments

RR1815

Website
Platform
R/V Roger Revelle
Report
Start Date
2018-10-24
End Date
2018-11-24
Description
Additional cruise information is available from the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): https://www.rvdata.us/search/cruise/RR1815


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Project Information

US GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect (U.S. GEOTRACES PMT)


Coverage: Pacific Meridional Transect along 152W (GP15)


A 60-day research cruise took place in 2018 along a transect form Alaska to Tahiti at 152° W. A description of the project titled "Collaborative Research: Management and implementation of the US GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect", funded by NSF, is below. Further project information is available on the US GEOTRACES website and on the cruise blog. A detailed cruise report is also available as a PDF.

Description from NSF award abstract:
GEOTRACES is a global effort in the field of Chemical Oceanography in which the United States plays a major role. The goal of the GEOTRACES program is to understand the distributions of many elements and their isotopes in the ocean. Until quite recently, these elements could not be measured at a global scale. Understanding the distributions of these elements and isotopes will increase the understanding of processes that shape their distributions and also the processes that depend on these elements. For example, many "trace elements" (elements that are present in very low amounts) are also important for life, and their presence or absence can play a vital role in the population of marine ecosystems. This project will launch the next major U.S. GEOTRACES expedition in the Pacific Ocean between Alaska and Tahiti. The award made here would support all of the major infrastructure for this expedition, including the research vessel, the sampling equipment, and some of the core oceanographic measurements. This project will also support the personnel needed to lead the expedition and collect the samples.

This project would support the essential sampling operations and infrastructure for the U.S. GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect along 152° W to support a large variety of individual science projects on trace element and isotope (TEI) biogeochemistry that will follow. Thus, the major objectives of this management proposal are: (1) plan and coordinate a 60 day research cruise in 2018; (2) obtain representative samples for a wide variety of TEIs using a conventional CTD/rosette, GEOTRACES Trace Element Sampling Systems, and in situ pumps; (3) acquire conventional CTD hydrographic data along with discrete samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, algal pigments, and dissolved nutrients at micro- and nanomolar levels; (4) ensure that proper QA/QC protocols are followed and reported, as well as fulfilling all GEOTRACES intercalibration protocols; (5) prepare and deliver all hydrographic data to the GEOTRACES Data Assembly Centre (via the US BCO-DMO data center); and (6) coordinate all cruise communications between investigators, including preparation of a hydrographic report/publication. This project would also provide baseline measurements of TEIs in the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone (~7.5°N-17°N, ~155°W-115°W) where large-scale deep sea mining is planned. Environmental impact assessments are underway in partnership with the mining industry, but the effect of mining activities on TEIs in the water column is one that could be uniquely assessed by the GEOTRACES community. In support of efforts to communicate the science to a wide audience the investigators will recruit an early career freelance science journalist with interests in marine science and oceanography to participate on the cruise and do public outreach, photography and/or videography, and social media from the ship, as well as to submit articles about the research to national media. The project would also support several graduate students.



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Program Information

U.S. GEOTRACES (U.S. GEOTRACES)


Coverage: Global


GEOTRACES is a SCOR sponsored program; and funding for program infrastructure development is provided by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

GEOTRACES gained momentum following a special symposium, S02: Biogeochemical cycling of trace elements and isotopes in the ocean and applications to constrain contemporary marine processes (GEOSECS II), at a 2003 Goldschmidt meeting convened in Japan. The GEOSECS II acronym referred to the Geochemical Ocean Section Studies To determine full water column distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes, including their concentration, chemical speciation, and physical form, along a sufficient number of sections in each ocean basin to establish the principal relationships between these distributions and with more traditional hydrographic parameters;

* To evaluate the sources, sinks, and internal cycling of these species and thereby characterize more completely the physical, chemical and biological processes regulating their distributions, and the sensitivity of these processes to global change; and

* To understand the processes that control the concentrations of geochemical species used for proxies of the past environment, both in the water column and in the substrates that reflect the water column.

GEOTRACES will be global in scope, consisting of ocean sections complemented by regional process studies. Sections and process studies will combine fieldwork, laboratory experiments and modelling. Beyond realizing the scientific objectives identified above, a natural outcome of this work will be to build a community of marine scientists who understand the processes regulating trace element cycles sufficiently well to exploit this knowledge reliably in future interdisciplinary studies.

Expand "Projects" below for information about and data resulting from individual US GEOTRACES research projects.



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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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