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Ries, Justin B; Cohen, Anne L; McCorkle, Daniel C (2010): Seawater carbonate chemistry and biological processes during experiments with coral Oculina arbuscula, 2010. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Ries, JB et al. (2010): A nonlinear calcification response to CO2-induced ocean acidification by the coral Oculina arbuscula. Coral Reefs, 29(3), 661-674,

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Anthropogenic elevation of atmospheric pCO2 is predicted to cause the pH of surface seawater to decline by 0.3-0.4 units by 2100 AD, causing a 50% reduction in seawater [CO3] and undersaturation with respect to aragonite in high-latitude surface waters. We investigated the impact of CO2-induced ocean acidification on the temperate scleractinian coral Oculina arbuscula by rearing colonies for 60 days in experimental seawaters bubbled with air-CO2 gas mixtures of 409, 606, 903, and 2,856 ppm pCO2, yielding average aragonite saturation states (Omega aragonite) of 2.6, 2.3, 1.6, and 0.8. Measurement of calcification (via buoyant weighing) and linear extension (relative to a 137Ba/138Ba spike) revealed that skeletal accretion was only minimally impaired by reductions in Omega aragonite from 2.6 to 1.6, although major reductions were observed at 0.8 (undersaturation). Notably, the corals continued accreting new skeletal material even in undersaturated conditions, although at reduced rates. Correlation between rates of linear extension and calcification suggests that reduced calcification under Omega aragonite = 0.8 resulted from reduced aragonite accretion, rather than from localized dissolution. Accretion of pure aragonite under each Omega aragonite discounts the possibility that these corals will begin producing calcite, a less soluble form of CaCO3, as the oceans acidify. The corals' nonlinear response to reduced Omega aragonite and their ability to accrete new skeletal material in undersaturated conditions suggest that they strongly control the biomineralization process. However, our data suggest that a threshold seawater [CO3] exists, below which calcification within this species (and possibly others) becomes impaired. Indeed, the strong negative response of O. arbuscula to Omega aragonite= 0.8 indicates that their response to future pCO2-induced ocean acidification could be both abrupt and severe once the critical Omega aragoniteis reached.
Animalia; Benthic animals; Benthos; Calcification/Dissolution; Cnidaria; Coast and continental shelf; Containers and aquaria (20-1000 L or < 1 m**2); Growth/Morphology; Laboratory experiment; North Atlantic; Oculina arbuscula; Single species; Temperate
Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), grant/award no. 211384: European Project on Ocean Acidification
Sixth Framework Programme (FP6), grant/award no. 511106: European network of excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI).
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1Sample IDSample IDRies, Justin B
2SpeciesSpeciesRies, Justin B
3SalinitySalRies, Justin BGuildline autosal salinometer
4Salinity, standard deviationSal std dev±Ries, Justin B
5Temperature, waterTemp°CRies, Justin BPartial-immersion mercury-glass thermometer
6Temperature, standard deviationT std dev±Ries, Justin B
7Alkalinity, totalATmmol(eq)/lRies, Justin BAlkalinity, Gran titration (Gran, 1950)
8Alkalinity, total, standard deviationAT std dev±Ries, Justin B
9pHpHRies, Justin BpH meter (Orion)NBS scale
10pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Ries, Justin B
11Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmRies, Justin BInfrared pCO2 analyzer (Qubit S151)
12Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/lRies, Justin BCalculated using CO2SYS
13Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviationDIC std dev±Ries, Justin B
14Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/lRies, Justin BCalculated using CO2SYS
15Carbonate ion, standard deviation[CO3]2- std dev±Ries, Justin B
16Bicarbonate[HCO3]-mmol/lRies, Justin BCalculated using CO2SYS
17Bicarbonate ion, standard deviation[HCO3]- std dev±Ries, Justin B
18Carbon dioxide, totalTCO2µmol/lRies, Justin BCalculated using CO2SYS
19Carbon dioxide, standard deviationCO2 std dev±Ries, Justin B
20Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgRies, Justin BCalculated using CO2SYS
21Aragonite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Arg std dev±Ries, Justin B
22Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
23pHpHNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)Total scale
24Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
25Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
26Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
27Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
28Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
29Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
30Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
31Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
32Calcite saturation stateOmega CalNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
33Buoyant massM buoyantmgRies, Justin BMeasuredInitial
34Buoyant massM buoyantmgRies, Justin BMeasuredFinal
35Calcification rateCalc rate%/dayRies, Justin BBuoyant weighing technique according to Davies (1989)
36Linear extensionLin extµm/dayRies, Justin BMeasured
Curation Level: Enhanced curation (CurationLevelC)
1941 data points

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