Surface Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6) values at start and finish of CTD casts from R/V Tangaroa cruise 61TG_3052 in the Southern Ocean in 1999 (SOIREE project)

Version: 12August2009
Version Date: 2009-08-12

» Southern Ocean Iron Release Experiment (SOIREE)

» Iron Synthesis (FeSynth)
Abraham, EdwardNew Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA)Principal Investigator
Law, C.S.Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML)Co-Principal Investigator
Mackie, DougUniversity of OtagoContact
Gegg, Stephen R.Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)BCO-DMO Data Manager

Dataset Description

SOIREE Surface SF6 Values at CTD Times

Comments preserved from the original file:
This table gives the values of the underway SF6 at the
start and finish times of each CTD down and up cast.

A value of -1 indicates either that no SF6 data is
available at that time, or that the closest measurements
were separated by more than 15minutes, and so the data
could not be reliably interpolated.

The percentage columns are the SF6 values expressed as a
percentage of the maximum concentration during the previous
evening's mapping.

The upcast column is 0 for downcasts and 1 for upcasts.

Methods & Sampling

See SOIREE Preliminary Voyage Report
See comments preserved from original file in dataset description as well

CTD data collection for SOIREE used NIWA's Seabird 911plus CTD and related

instrumentation - operated in its standard configuration, and according to standard procedures.

Data Processing Description

See SOIREE Preliminary Voyage Report
See comments preserved from original file in dataset description as well

CTD data processing followed standard procedures.

These processes routinely result in pressure, temperature, salinity and

dissolved oxygen data that conform to WOCE Hydrographic Programme standards

(see WOCE HP Operations Manual WHP 91-1).
with the measurements referenced
(calibrated against) their respective international standards.

For SOIREE, the main exception was that there was no water-sample dissolved

oxygen data collected during the cruise. This meant that the dissolved O2

data could not be reliably calibrated to WOCE standards and that they are

only crudely indicative. It would be possible to somewhat further enhance

these dissolved O2 data by applying a calibration from a previous or

following cruise that used the same sensor.

BCO-DMO Processing Notes

Generated from original ctd_sf6.xls file provided on the

Deep-Sea Research II 48 (2001) accompanying CD-Rom


- parameter names modified to conform to BCO-DMO convention

- added 'T' to CTD Station number for compatibility with events in other spreadsheets

- date, time. Lat, lon added from SOIREE_Stations_MasterStationList.xls using GMT dates/times

- "-1" No data or Bad data flag changed to BCO-DMO standard of "nd"

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Data Files

(Comma Separated Values (.csv), 10.63 KB)
Primary data file for dataset ID 2831

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stationStation Id (Text String) text
datedate YYYYMMDD
lonlongitude, negative denotes West decimal degrees
latlatitude, negative denotes South decimal degrees
timetime HHMM
castCTD cast number integer
UpcastUp/Down Cast Flag (0=Down, 1=Up) integer
SF6_StartSF6 at Start fMol
SF6_Start_percentageSF6 Percentage at Start percentage
SF6_FinishSF6 at Finish fMol
SF6_Finish_percentageSF6 Percentage at Finish percentage

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Dataset-specific Instrument Name
CTD Seabird 911
Generic Instrument Name
CTD Sea-Bird 911
Dataset-specific Description
NIWA's Seabird 911plus CTD and related instrumentation
Generic Instrument Description
The Sea-Bird SBE 911 is a type of CTD instrument package. The SBE 911 includes the SBE 9 Underwater Unit and the SBE 11 Deck Unit (for real-time readout using conductive wire) for deployment from a vessel. The combination of the SBE 9 and SBE 11 is called a SBE 911. The SBE 9 uses Sea-Bird's standard modular temperature and conductivity sensors (SBE 3 and SBE 4). The SBE 9 CTD can be configured with auxiliary sensors to measure other parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, fluorescence, light (PAR), light transmission, etc.). More information from Sea-Bird Electronics.

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R/V Tangaroa
Start Date
End Date
Cruise to the Southern Ocean as part of the Fe Sythesis project whose aim was to maintain a coherent patch of iron-enriched seawater for the duration of SOIREE and to interpret any iron-mediated effects on the patch by conducting measurements and performing experiments during this period.

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Project Information

Southern Ocean Iron Release Experiment (SOIREE)

Coverage: Southern Ocean

Project in the Southern Ocean aimed at maintaining a coherent patch of iron-enriched seawater for the duration of project and to interpret any iron-mediated effects on the patch by conducting measurements and performing experiments during this period of the project.

The Southern Ocean Iron RElease Experiment (SOIREE), was the first in situ iron fertilization experiment performed in the polar waters of the Southern Ocean. SOIREE was an interdisciplinary study involving participants from six countries, and took place in February 1999 south of the Polar Front in the Australasian-Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean.

Approximately 3800 kg of acidified FeSO4.7H2O and 165 g of the tracer sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) were added to a 65-m deep surface mixed layer over an area of ~50 km2. Initially, mean dissolved iron concentrations were ~2.7 nM, but decreased to ambient levels within days, requiring subsequent additions of 1550-1750 kg of acidified FeSO4.7H2O on days 3, 5 and 7 of the experiment.

During the 13-day site occupation, there were iron-mediated increases in phytoplankton growth rates, with marked increases in chlorophyll a (up to 2 µgl-1) and production rates (up to 1.3 gCm-2d-1). These resulted in subsequent changes in the pelagic ecosystem structure, and in the cycling of carbon, silica and sulphur, such as a 10% drawdown of surface CO2.

The SOIREE bloom persisted for >40 days following our departure from the site, as observed via SeaWiFS remotely sensed observations of Ocean Colour.

All original data and metadata provided on a CD-Rom accompanying the Deep-Sea Research II 48 (2001) volume. The CD-Rom contains the main SOIREE datasets and ancillary information including the pre-experiment 'desktop' database study for site-selection, and satellite images of the SOIREE bloom.
© 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Related files

SOIREE Preliminary Voyage Report
SOIREE Introduction and Summary, Deep-Sea Research II 48 (2001) 2425-2438
SOIREE Cruise Track

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Program Information

Iron Synthesis (FeSynth)

Coverage: Global

The two main objectives of the Iron Synthesis program (SCOR Working Group proposal, 2005), are:
1. Data compilation: assembling a common open-access database of the in situ iron experiments, beginning with the first period (1993-2002; Ironex-1, Ironex-2, SOIREE, EisenEx, SEEDS-1; SOFeX, SERIES) where primary articles have already been published, to be followed by the 2004 experiments where primary articles are now in progress (EIFEX, SEEDS-2; SAGE, FeeP); similarly for the natural fertilizations S.O.JGOFS (1992), CROZEX (2004/2005) and KEOPS (2005).

2. Modeling and data synthesis of specific aspects of two or more such experiments for various topics such as physical mixing, phytoplankton productivity, overall ecosystem functioning, iron chemistry, CO2 budgeting, nutrient uptake ratios, DMS(P) processes, and combinations of these variables and processes.

SCOR Working Group proposal, 2005. "The Legacy of in situ Iron Enrichments: Data Compilation and Modeling".

See also: SCOR Proceedings Vol. 42 Concepcion, Chile October 2006, pgs: 13-16 2.3.3 Working Group on The Legacy of in situ Iron Enrichments: Data Compilation and Modeling.

The first objective of the Iron Synthesis program involves a data recovery effort aimed at assembling a common, open-access database of data and metadata from a series of in-situ ocean iron fertilization experiments conducted between 1993 and 2005. Initially, funding for this effort is being provided by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF).

Through the combined efforts of the principal investigators of the individual projects and the staff of Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO), data currently available primarily through individuals, disparate reports and data agencies, and in multiple formats, are being collected and prepared for addition to the BCO-DMO database from which they will be freely available to the community.

As data are contributed to the BCO-DMO office, they are organized into four overlapping categories:
1. Level 1, basic metadata
(e.g., description of project/study, general location, PI(s), participants);
2. Level 2, detailed metadata and basic shipboard data and routine ship's operations
(e.g., CTDs, underway measurements, sampling event logs);
3. Level 3, detailed metadata and data from specialized observations
(e.g., discrete observations, experimental results, rate measurements) and
4. Level 4, remaining datasets
(e.g., highest level of detailed data available from each study).

Collaboration with BCO-DMO staff began in March of 2008 and initial efforts have been directed toward basic project descriptions, levels 1 and 2 metadata and basic data, with detailed and more detailed data files being incorporated as they become available and are processed.

Related file

Program Documentation

The Iron Synthesis Program is funded jointly by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF).

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