Nano- and microplankton biomass, epifluorescence microscopy from R/V Melville, R/V Roger Revelle cruises COOK19MV, DRFT08RR from the Southern Ocean, south of New Zealand in 2002 (SOFeX project)

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/2930
Version: final
Version Date: 2007-03-28

Project
» Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX)

Programs
» Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB)
» Iron Synthesis (FeSynth)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Landry, Michael R.University of Hawaii at Manoa (SOEST)Principal Investigator
Brown, SusanUniversity of Hawaii at Manoa (SOEST)Analyst
Chandler, Cynthia L.Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager


Dataset Description

nano- and microplankton biomass estimated by epifluorescence microscopy from bottle samples


Acquisition Description

 dates:           11 January 2002 to 08 February 2002  (20020111-20020208)
 location:        N: -54.09 S: -66.42  W: -172.02 E: -169.35 
 project/cruise:  SOFeX/RR
 platform:        R/V Roger Revelle
 
 
 Methodology:  image-enhanced epifluorescent microscopy methods described in: 
    Brown, S.L., M.R. Landry, J. Neveux, and C. Dupouy.  2003.  Microbial community 
    abundance and biomass along a 180° transect in the equatorial Pacific during 
    an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 
    108(C12), 8139. (available from AGU.org abstract and PDF link)


Processing Description

 
 Change history: YYMMDD
   061215: original data received from Susan Brown (UH Manoa);
   070129: added to OCB database by Cyndy Chandler, OCB DMO, (cchandler@whoi.edu)
   070328: update metadata from new version of cruise event log
   070503: data is now considered final following PI review
 
 OCB DMO Note: event, date, time, lon, lat and ev_type taken from event logs
 
 PI note: 
    all biomass reported in micrograms of Carbon per liter
 

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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
eventunique sampling event number from event log (day of year and time (UTC)) doYhhmm
datedate sampling began (UTC) YYYYMMDD
timetime sampling began (UTC) hhmm
time_Ltime sampling began (local; GMT +13) hhmm
lonlongitude, negative denotes West decimal degrees
latlatitude, negative denotes South decimal degrees
stationstation identifier dimensionless
ev_typeevent type descriptor string dimensionless
patch_locdenotes in or out and which patch dimensionless
depthdepth, calculated from pressure meters
flag_het_Cbiomass attributed to flagellated grazers heterotrophic flagellates (2-200 microns) micrograms of carbon per liter
ciliates_Cbiomass attributed to ciliates micrograms of carbon per liter
diatoms_lt20_Cbiomass attributed to diatoms less than 20 microns in length micrograms of carbon per liter
diatoms_gt20_Cbiomass attributed to diatoms greater than 20 microns in length micrograms of carbon per liter
phyto_tot_Ctotal biomass attributed to phytoplankton micrograms of carbon per liter


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Niskin Bottle
Generic Instrument Name
Niskin bottle
Generic Instrument Description
A Niskin bottle (a next generation water sampler based on the Nansen bottle) is a cylindrical, non-metallic water collection device with stoppers at both ends. The bottles can be attached individually on a hydrowire or deployed in 12, 24, or 36 bottle Rosette systems mounted on a frame and combined with a CTD. Niskin bottles are used to collect discrete water samples for a range of measurements including pigments, nutrients, plankton, etc.


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Deployments

COOK19MV

Website
Platform
R/V Melville
Report
Start Date
2002-01-19
End Date
2002-02-26
Description
Brief cruise plan description: Three ships were involved in the SOFeX experiment. Each ship operated in the study area at a different time to afford the longest observation time. The designations SOFeX-N and SOFeX-S are sometimes used to distinguish between two iron enriched patches - one in low silicate waters north of the polar front (SOFEX-N), and the other in high silicate waters south of the polar front (SOFEX-S). All three ships, Melville (MV), Revelle (RR) and Polar Star (PS), worked in SOFEX-S, but only the Revelle and Melville worked in the SOFeX N patch and shuttled between the two patches. The R/V MELVILLE sailed several weeks after the R/V REVELLE to arrive in the study area just as the 'patches' were forming in response to iron fertilization. The MELVILLE's team planned to make detailed measurements of phytoplankton physiology and rate processes, and to sample daily for phytoplankton growth rates and biomass, soluble and particulate iron and zooplankton biomass. A cruise logbook includes daily entries filed by the Chief Scientist aboard each vessel.

Acquisition Description
dates: 24 January 2002 to 14 February 2002 (20020124-20020214) location: N: -55.256 S: -66.612 W: -172.228 E: -170.999 project/cruise: SOFeX/MV Methodology: image-enhanced epifluorescent microscopy methods described in: Brown, S.L., M.R. Landry, J. Neveux, and C. Dupouy. 2003. Microbial community abundance and biomass along a 180° transect in the equatorial Pacific during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(C12), 8139. (available from AGU.org abstract and PDF link)

Processing Description
Change history: YYMMDD 061215: original data received from Susan Brown (UH Manoa); 070129: added to OCB database by Cyndy Chandler, OCB DMO, (cchandler@whoi.edu) 070503: data is now considered final following PI review OCB DMO Note: 070129: event, date, time, lon, lat and ev_type taken from event logs PI note: all biomass reported in micrograms of Carbon per liter

DRFT08RR

Website
Platform
R/V Roger Revelle
Report
Start Date
2002-01-06
End Date
2002-02-14
Description
Brief cruise plan description: Three ships were involved in the SOFeX experiment. Each ship operated in the study area at a different time to afford the longest observation time. The designations SOFeX-N and SOFeX-S are sometimes used to distinguish between two iron enriched patches - one in low silicate waters north of the polar front (SOFEX-N), and the other in high silicate waters south of the polar front (SOFEX-S). All three ships, Melville (MV), Revelle (RR) and Polar Star (PS), worked in SOFEX-S, but only the Revelle and Melville worked in the SOFeX N patch and shuttled between the two patches. The R/V ROGER REVELLE from Scripps Institution of Oceanography sailed first. The REVELLE team added iron to two areas referred to as 'the North and South patches'. After the iron and an inert chemical tracer (SF6) were added, the REVELLE's primary mission was to map the size and characteristics of the South patch using a SeaSOAR fish towed behind the ship that pumped water up to the ship for sampling and analysis. The REVELLE also collected samples for initial biological shipboard mapping of iron concentrations, nutrients, chlorophyll, and photosynthetic efficiency. A cruise logbook includes daily entries filed by the Chief Scientist aboard each vessel.

Acquisition Description
dates: 11 January 2002 to 08 February 2002 (20020111-20020208) location: N: -54.09 S: -66.42 W: -172.02 E: -169.35 project/cruise: SOFeX/RR platform: R/V Roger Revelle Methodology: image-enhanced epifluorescent microscopy methods described in: Brown, S.L., M.R. Landry, J. Neveux, and C. Dupouy. 2003. Microbial community abundance and biomass along a 180° transect in the equatorial Pacific during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(C12), 8139. (available from AGU.org abstract and PDF link)

Processing Description
Change history: YYMMDD 061215: original data received from Susan Brown (UH Manoa); 070129: added to OCB database by Cyndy Chandler, OCB DMO, (cchandler@whoi.edu) 070328: update metadata from new version of cruise event log 070503: data is now considered final following PI review OCB DMO Note: event, date, time, lon, lat and ev_type taken from event logs PI note: all biomass reported in micrograms of Carbon per liter


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Project Information

Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX)


Coverage: Southern Ocean, south of New Zealand


Before he passed away in 1993, John Martin suggested that an increase in the flow of iron-rich dust to the ocean causes phytoplankton (single celled algae) to grow. The increased photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from surface waters as the algae create biomass. This carbon dioxide is replaced by carbon dioxide gas that flows into the sea from the atmosphere. Reduced carbon dioxide in the atmosphere cools the planet (CO2 is a greenhouse gas that warms the earth). The results of this work, funded by the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, and the US Coast Guard, will be a much better understanding of how biological processes may regulate climate. (see Related Info: Fe cycle)

A direct test of the 'Martin Hypothesis' that trace concentrations of Fe are responsible for phytoplankton's ability to grow by direct experimental addition of Fe to the surface waters. Consequently the distribution of bioavailable Fe in the surface waters determines large geographical areas primary production and the following flux of fixed organic matter to the deep sea. The aim of the SOFeX project is to investigate the effects of iron fertilization on the productivity of the Southern Ocean. The results of this work will contribute significantly to our understanding of important biogeochemical processes which bear directly on the global carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, and climate control.

The SOFeX-N and SOFeX-S designations are sometimes used to distinguish between two iron enriched patches - one in low silicate waters north of the polar front (SOFEX-N), and the other in high silicate waters south of the polar front (SOFEX-S). All three ships, Melville (MV), Revelle (RR) and Polar Star (PS), worked in SOFEX-S, but only the Revelle and Melville worked in the SOFeX N patch and shuttled between the two patches.



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Program Information

Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB)


Coverage: Global


The Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program focuses on the ocean's role as a component of the global Earth system, bringing together research in geochemistry, ocean physics, and ecology that inform on and advance our understanding of ocean biogeochemistry. The overall program goals are to promote, plan, and coordinate collaborative, multidisciplinary research opportunities within the U.S. research community and with international partners. Important OCB-related activities currently include: the Ocean Carbon and Climate Change (OCCC) and the North American Carbon Program (NACP); U.S. contributions to IMBER, SOLAS, CARBOOCEAN; and numerous U.S. single-investigator and medium-size research projects funded by U.S. federal agencies including NASA, NOAA, and NSF.

The scientific mission of OCB is to study the evolving role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle, in the face of environmental variability and change through studies of marine biogeochemical cycles and associated ecosystems.

The overarching OCB science themes include improved understanding and prediction of: 1) oceanic uptake and release of atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases and 2) environmental sensitivities of biogeochemical cycles, marine ecosystems, and interactions between the two.

The OCB Research Priorities (updated January 2012) include: ocean acidification; terrestrial/coastal carbon fluxes and exchanges; climate sensitivities of and change in ecosystem structure and associated impacts on biogeochemical cycles; mesopelagic ecological and biogeochemical interactions; benthic-pelagic feedbacks on biogeochemical cycles; ocean carbon uptake and storage; and expanding low-oxygen conditions in the coastal and open oceans.


Iron Synthesis (FeSynth)

Coverage: Global


The two main objectives of the Iron Synthesis program (SCOR Working Group proposal, 2005), are:
1. Data compilation: assembling a common open-access database of the in situ iron experiments, beginning with the first period (1993-2002; Ironex-1, Ironex-2, SOIREE, EisenEx, SEEDS-1; SOFeX, SERIES) where primary articles have already been published, to be followed by the 2004 experiments where primary articles are now in progress (EIFEX, SEEDS-2; SAGE, FeeP); similarly for the natural fertilizations S.O.JGOFS (1992), CROZEX (2004/2005) and KEOPS (2005).

2. Modeling and data synthesis of specific aspects of two or more such experiments for various topics such as physical mixing, phytoplankton productivity, overall ecosystem functioning, iron chemistry, CO2 budgeting, nutrient uptake ratios, DMS(P) processes, and combinations of these variables and processes.

SCOR Working Group proposal, 2005. "The Legacy of in situ Iron Enrichments: Data Compilation and Modeling".
http://www.scor-int.org/Working_Groups/wg131.htm

See also: SCOR Proceedings Vol. 42 Concepcion, Chile October 2006, pgs: 13-16 2.3.3 Working Group on The Legacy of in situ Iron Enrichments: Data Compilation and Modeling.

The first objective of the Iron Synthesis program involves a data recovery effort aimed at assembling a common, open-access database of data and metadata from a series of in-situ ocean iron fertilization experiments conducted between 1993 and 2005. Initially, funding for this effort is being provided by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF).

Through the combined efforts of the principal investigators of the individual projects and the staff of Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO), data currently available primarily through individuals, disparate reports and data agencies, and in multiple formats, are being collected and prepared for addition to the BCO-DMO database from which they will be freely available to the community.

As data are contributed to the BCO-DMO office, they are organized into four overlapping categories:
1. Level 1, basic metadata
(e.g., description of project/study, general location, PI(s), participants);
2. Level 2, detailed metadata and basic shipboard data and routine ship's operations
(e.g., CTDs, underway measurements, sampling event logs);
3. Level 3, detailed metadata and data from specialized observations
(e.g., discrete observations, experimental results, rate measurements) and
4. Level 4, remaining datasets
(e.g., highest level of detailed data available from each study).

Collaboration with BCO-DMO staff began in March of 2008 and initial efforts have been directed toward basic project descriptions, levels 1 and 2 metadata and basic data, with detailed and more detailed data files being incorporated as they become available and are processed.

Related file

Program Documentation

The Iron Synthesis Program is funded jointly by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF).



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