Niskin bottle salinity measurements from R/V Oceanus OC404-01, OC404-04, OC415-02, OC415-04 in the Sargasso Sea, 2004-2005 (EDDIES project)

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3039
Version: 12 April 2007
Version Date: 2007-04-12

Project
» Eddies Dynamics, Mixing, Export, and Species composition (EDDIES)

Program
» Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Ledwell, James R.Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)Principal Investigator
McGillicuddy, Dennis J.Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)Principal Investigator
Chandler, Cynthia L.Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager


Dataset Description

 
 PI:              Dennis McGillicuddy
 of:              Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)
 dataset:         Niskin bottle salinity measurements
 platform:        R/V Oceanus
 
 Methodology: none provided with data

 OCB DMO Note: use SID_salts to determine Niskin bottle numbers
 

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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
stastation number dimensionless
depth_ndepth, nominal meters
SID_saltssample ID dimensionless
cond_botconductivity of bottle sample (ratio where 2.0 = 35 ppt) dimensionless
sal_botsalinity PSU
Qflagflag dimensionless
box_numbox number dimensionless
box_namebox name dimensionless
Cruise_IDcruise designation code alphanumeric
eventunique sampling event number YYYYMMDDhhmm
ev_typeevent type abbreviation code CTD=Rosette cast Sampler=Sampling sled tow dimensionless
castcast number for event dimensionless
lonlongitude, negative denotes West decimal degrees
latlatitude, negative denotes South decimal degrees
botNiskin bottle number dimensionless
NisNiskin bottle order number dimensionless
presspressure, nominal for Sampler decibars
temptemperature; from CTD; ITS-90 (from primary T0 sensor) degrees Celsius
sal_CTDsalinity; from CTD; PSS-78 (PSU) (from primary T0,C0 sensors) dimensionless
salt_QFquality flag for bottle salinity dimensionless
Sdiffsalinity difference (CTD-bottle) dimensionless


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Niskin Bottle
Generic Instrument Name
Niskin bottle
Generic Instrument Description
A Niskin bottle (a next generation water sampler based on the Nansen bottle) is a cylindrical, non-metallic water collection device with stoppers at both ends. The bottles can be attached individually on a hydrowire or deployed in 12, 24, or 36 bottle Rosette systems mounted on a frame and combined with a CTD. Niskin bottles are used to collect discrete water samples for a range of measurements including pigments, nutrients, plankton, etc.


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Deployments

OC404-01

Website
Platform
R/V Oceanus
Report
Start Date
2004-06-11
End Date
2004-07-03
Description
EDDIES 2004 Survey 1 cruise Funded by: NSF OCE-0241310 Original cruise data are available from the NSF R2R data catalog (Cruise DOI: 10.7284/900337)

Acquisition Description
PI: Dennis McGillicuddy of: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) dataset: Niskin bottle salinity measurements dates: 12 June 2004 to 29 June 2004 (20040612-20040629) location: N: 37.934 S: 29.780 W: -68.703 E: -59.182 project/cruise: EDDIES/OC404-1 2004 Survey 1 platform: R/V Oceanus Methodology: none provided with data Change history: YYMMDD 060314: downloaded oc404_1_salts_final.xls from EDDIES data web site; added to OCB database by Cyndy Chandler, OCB DMO; OCB DMO Note: use SID_salts to determine Niskin bottle numbers

OC404-04

Website
Platform
R/V Oceanus
Report
Start Date
2004-07-25
End Date
2004-08-12
Description
EDDIES project 2004 Survey 2 cruise Funded by: NSF OCE-0241310 Original cruise data are available from the NSF R2R data catalog

Acquisition Description
PI: Dennis McGillicuddy of: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) dataset: Niskin bottle salinity measurements dates: 26 July 2004 to 11 August 2004 (20040726-20040811) location: N: 31.762 S: 29.958 W: -66.601 E: -60.296 project/cruise: EDDIES/OC404-4 2004 Survey 2 platform: R/V Oceanus Methodology: none provided with data Change history: YYMMDD 060314: downloaded oc404_4_salts_final.xls from EDDIES data web site; added to OCB database by Cyndy Chandler, OCB DMO; OCB DMO Note: insufficient data to determine Niskin bottle numbers

OC415-02

Website
Platform
R/V Oceanus
Start Date
2005-07-18
End Date
2005-08-04
Description
EDDIES project 2005 Tracer 1 cruise Funded by: NSF OCE-0241310 Original cruise data are available from the NSF R2R data catalog

Acquisition Description
PI: Jim Ledwell (Chief Scientist) of: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) dataset: Niskin bottle salinity measurements dates: 19 July 2005 to 02 August 2005 (20050719-20050802) location: N: 30.785 S: 28.889 W: -67.721 E: -66.615 project/cruise: EDDIES/OC415-2 2005 Tracer 1 platform: R/V Oceanus Methodology: shipboard processing notes Change history: YYMMDD 070302: received bottle salinity data files (salt_oc415_2) from L. Anderson; 070315: added to OCB database by Cyndy Chandler (OCB DMO) OCB DMO Note: used SID_salts to determine cast, Niskin bottle numbers, and depth_n. event number is from the event log and CTD data were contributed with the calibration data.

OC415-04

Website
Platform
R/V Oceanus
Report
Start Date
2005-08-29
End Date
2005-09-15
Description
EDDIES project 2005 Tracer 2 cruise Funded by: NSF OCE-0241310 The cruise end date was originally entered as 9/14/2005 (source: UNOLS final ship schedule), but this was changed in February 2015 to end date 9/15/2005.  The official record from the vessel operator shows the end date being 9/15/2015. Original cruise data are available from the NSF R2R data catalog

Acquisition Description
PI: Jim Ledwell (Chief Scientist) of: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) dataset: Niskin bottle salinity measurements dates: 31 August 2005 to 11 September 2005 (20050831-20050911) location: N: 29.918 S: 29.627 W: -69.792 E: -69.106 project/cruise: EDDIES/OC415-4 2005 Tracer 2 platform: R/V Oceanus Methodology: shipboard processing notes Change history: YYMMDD 070302: received bottle salinity data files (salt_oc415_4) from L. Anderson; 070315: added to OCB database by Cyndy Chandler (OCB DMO) OCB DMO Note: used SID_salts to determine cast, Niskin bottle numbers, and depth_n. event number is from the event log and CTD data were contributed with the calibration data.


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Project Information

Eddies Dynamics, Mixing, Export, and Species composition (EDDIES)


Coverage: Sargasso Sea


The original title of this project from the NSF award is: Collaborative Research: Impacts of Eddies and Mixing on Plankton Community Structure and Biogeochemical Cycling in the Sargasso Sea".

Prior results have documented eddy-driven transport of nutrients into the euphotic zone and the associated accumulation of chlorophyll. However, several key aspects of mesoscale upwelling events remain unresolved by the extant database, including: (1) phytoplankton physiological response, (2) changes in community structure, (3) impact on export out of the euphotic zone, (4) rates of mixing between the surface mixed layer and the base of the euphotic zone, and (5) implications for biogeochemistry and differential cycling of carbon and associated bioactive elements. This leads to the following hypotheses concerning the complex, non-linear biological regulation of elemental cycling in the ocean:

H1: Eddy-induced upwelling, in combination with diapycnal mixing in the upper ocean, introduces new nutrients into the euphotic zone.

H2: The increase in inorganic nutrients stimulates a physiological response within the phytoplankton community.

H3: Differing physiological responses of the various species bring about a shift in community structure.

H4: Changes in community structure lead to increases in export from, and changes in biogeochemical cycling within, the upper ocean.

Publications

Andrews, J.E., Hartin, C., and Buesseler, K.O.. "7Be Analyses in Seawater by Low Background Gamma-Spectroscopy.," Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, v.277, 2008, p. 253.

Andrews, J.E., Hartin, C., Buesseler, K.O.. "7Be Analyses in Seawater by Low Background Gamma-Spectroscopy," Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, v.277, 2008, p. 253.

Benitez-Nelson, C.R. and McGillicuddy, D.J.. "Mesoscale Physical-Biological-Biogeochemical Linkages in the Open Ocean: An Introduction to the Results of the E-Flux and EDDIES Programs.," Deep Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p. 1133.

Benitez-Nelson, C.R. and McGillicuddy, D.J.. "Mesoscale Physical-Biological-Biogeochemical Linkages in the Open Ocean: An Introduction to the Results of the E-Flux and EDDIES Programs," Deep-Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p. 1133.

Bibby, T.S., Gorbunov, M.Y., Wyman, K.W., Falkowski, P.G.. "Photosynthetic community responses to upwelling in mesoscale eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans," Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, v.55, 2008, p. 1310.

Buesseler, K.O., Lamborg, C., Cai, P., Escoube, R., Johnson, R., Pike, S., Masque, P., McGillicuddy, D.J., Verdeny, E.. "Particle Fluxes Associated with Mesoscale Eddies in the Sargasso Sea," Deep Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p. 1426.

Carlson, C.A., del Giorgio, P., Herdl, G.. "Microbes and the dissipation of energy and respiration: From cells to ecosystems," Oceanography, v.20, 2007, p. 89.

Davis, C.S., and McGillicuddy, D.J.. "Transatlantic Abundance of the N2-Fixing Colonial Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium," Science, v.312, 2006, p. 1517.

Ewart, C.S., Meyers, M.K., Wallner, E., McGillicuddy, D.J., Carlson, C.A.. "Microbial Dynamics in Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Mode-Water Eddies in the Northwestern Sargasso Sea," Deep Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p. 1334.

Ewart, C.S., Meyers, M.K., Wallner, E., McGillicuddy, D.J., Carlson, C.A.. "Microbial Dynamics in Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Mode-Water Eddies in the Northwestern Sargasso Sea," Deep-Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p. 1334.

Goldthwait, S.A. and Steinberg, D.K.. "Elevated biomass of mesozooplankton and enhanced fecal pellet flux in cyclonic and mode-water eddies in the Sargasso Sea," Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, v.55, 2008, p. 1360.

Greenan, B.J.W.. "Shear and Richardson number in a mode-water eddy," Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, v.55, 2008, p. 1161.

Jenkins, W.J., McGillicuddy, D.J., and Lott III, D.E.. "The Distributions of, and Relationship Between 3 He and Nitrate in Eddies," Deep Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p. 1389.

Jenkins, W.J., McGillicuddy, D.J., Lott III, D.E.. "The Distributions of, and Relationship Between 3 He and Nitrate in Eddies," Deep-Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p. 1389.

Ledwell, J.R., McGillicuddy, D.J., and Anderson, L.A.. "Nutrient Flux into an Intense Deep Chlorophyll Layer in a Mode-water Eddy.," Deep Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p. 1139.

Ledwell, J.R., McGillicuddy, D.J., Anderson, L.A.. "Nutrient Flux into an Intense Deep Chlorophyll Layer in a Mode-water Eddy," Deep-Sea Research II, v.55, 2008, p. 1139.

Li, Q.P. and Hansell, D.A.. "Intercomparison and coupling of MAGIC and LWCC techniques for trace analysis of phosphate in seawater," Analytical Chemica Acta, v.611, 2008, p. 68.

Li, Q.P., Hansell, D.A., McGillicuddy, D.J., Bates, N.R., Johnson, R.J.. "Tracer-based assessment of the origin and biogeochemical transformation of a cyclonic eddy in the Sargasso Sea," Journal of Geophysical Research, v.113, 2008, p. 10006.

Li, Q.P., Hansell, D.A., Zhang, J.-Z.. "Underway monitoring of nanomolar nitrate plus nitrite and phosphate in oligotrophic seawater," Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, v.6, 2008, p. 319.

Li, Q.P., Zhang, J.-Z., Millero, F.J., Hansell, D.A.. "Continuous colorimetric determination of trace ammonium in seawater with a long-path liquid waveguide capillary cell," Marine Chemistry, v.96, 2005, p. 73.

McGillicuddy, D.J., et. al.. "Eddy/Wind Interactions Stimulate Extraordinary Mid-Ocean Plankton Blooms," Science, v.316, 2007, p. 1021.

McGillicuddy, D.J., Ledwell, J.R., and Anderson, L.A.. "Response to Comment on "Eddy/Wind Interactions Stimulate Extraordinary Mid-Ocean Plankton Bloom".," Science, v.320, 2008.

McGillicuddy, D.J., Ledwell, J.R., Anderson, L.A.. "Response to Comment on "Eddy/Wind Interactions Stimulate Extraordinary Mid-Ocean Plankton Bloom"," Science, v.320, 2008.

McGillicuddy, et. al.. "Eddy/Wind Interactions Stimulate Extraordinary Mid-Ocean Plankton Blooms.," Science, v.316, 2007, p. 1021.

Mourino B., and McGillicuddy, D.J.. "Mesoscale Variability in the Metabolic Balance of the Sargasso Sea," Limnology & Oceanography, v.51, 2006, p. 2675.



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Program Information

Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB)


Coverage: Global


The Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program focuses on the ocean's role as a component of the global Earth system, bringing together research in geochemistry, ocean physics, and ecology that inform on and advance our understanding of ocean biogeochemistry. The overall program goals are to promote, plan, and coordinate collaborative, multidisciplinary research opportunities within the U.S. research community and with international partners. Important OCB-related activities currently include: the Ocean Carbon and Climate Change (OCCC) and the North American Carbon Program (NACP); U.S. contributions to IMBER, SOLAS, CARBOOCEAN; and numerous U.S. single-investigator and medium-size research projects funded by U.S. federal agencies including NASA, NOAA, and NSF.

The scientific mission of OCB is to study the evolving role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle, in the face of environmental variability and change through studies of marine biogeochemical cycles and associated ecosystems.

The overarching OCB science themes include improved understanding and prediction of: 1) oceanic uptake and release of atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases and 2) environmental sensitivities of biogeochemical cycles, marine ecosystems, and interactions between the two.

The OCB Research Priorities (updated January 2012) include: ocean acidification; terrestrial/coastal carbon fluxes and exchanges; climate sensitivities of and change in ecosystem structure and associated impacts on biogeochemical cycles; mesopelagic ecological and biogeochemical interactions; benthic-pelagic feedbacks on biogeochemical cycles; ocean carbon uptake and storage; and expanding low-oxygen conditions in the coastal and open oceans.



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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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