Sample HPLC pigments from RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer NBP1302 cruise in the Ross Sea during 2013 (TRACERS project)

Version: 18 May 2015
Version Date: 2015-05-18

» TRacing the fate of Algal Carbon Export in the Ross Sea (TRACERS)
DiTullio, GiacomoGrice Marine Laboratory - College of Charleston (GML-CoC)Principal Investigator, Contact
Cooper, EmilyGrice Marine Laboratory - College of Charleston (GML-CoC)Contact
Gegg, Stephen R.Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

Dataset Description

HPLC pigment analyses of CTD collected samples from the NBP1302 cruise (Ross Sea, Antarctica).

Acquisition Description

Water samples were collected from CTD Niskin bottles. Water samples for HPLC analyses were taken from one Niskin bottle per cast-depth combination included in the dataset. Note that the niskin_sampled column indicates which Niskin bottle the HPLC sample was taken from. The niskins_fired column indicates all Niskin bottle numbers fired at the specified depth, though the HPLC sample was taken from only one of those bottles.

Chlorophyll and accessory pigment composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; Agilent 1100). Culture aliquots were filtered on Whatmann GF/F filters, flash frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at -80°C until analysis. Just prior to analysis, pigments were extracted overnight in acetone at -20°C. The following day extracted pigments were centrifuged and measured using a gradient elution method (DiTullio and Geesey, 2003), a modification of the Zapata et al 2000 method. Chromatographic separation was performed using a Waters C8 symmetry column, photodiode array and fluorescence detectors. The internal standard, β-Apo-8-carotenal-trans standard (Fluka Chemical Corp., USA) was added to extracted pigments as a peak reference. Individual pigment peaks were quantified with Chemstation software (revision B.03.01, Agilent) and our pigment action spectra library calibrated using pigment standards from DHI LABS (Hoersholm, Denmark) and in-house purifications of non-commercially available pigments. Coefficient of variation among replicate HPLC injections is < 3% and our limit of detection is approximately 1 ng L-1.

Nathaniel B. Palmer Systems and Specifications

Processing Description

Response factors for pigments were performed using dilutions of calibration standards. Full details of data processing and methods used can be found in:
DiTullio, G. R. & Geesey, M. E. (2002) Photosynthetic pigments in marine algae and bacteria. In: BITTON, G. (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

BCO-DMO Processing Notes:
 - Generated from original .xlsx file "NPB1302 BCO-DMO.xls, sheet: CTD Final" contributed by Emily Cooper
 - Parameter names edited to conform to BCO-DMO naming convention found at Choosing Parameter Name
- Blanks (missing data) replaced with "nd" meaning "no data";
- Date reformmated to YYYYMMDD
- Time reformatted to HHMM
- Added ISO_DateTime_UTC column from original DATE and TIME fields
- Lat/Lon whole degs and minutes removed (decimal degrees preserved)
- Original Lat/Lon position for CTD-135 corrected using cruise track navigation

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CastCTD Cast Identifier text
TimeTime (GMT) HHMM
ISO_Date_TimeDate/Time (GMT (ISO formatted) YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS[.xx]Z
LatitudeLatitude (South is negative) decimal degrees
LongitudeLongitude (West is negative) decimal degrees
DepthSample depth meters
NiskinNiskin Bottle Number integer
Sample_NumSample Number integer
Filt_volVolume Filtered liters
Chl_C3Chlorophyll c3 ng/L
Chl_lideChlorophyllide ng/L
MgDvpMagnesium-2;4-divinyl ng/L
Chl_C2Chlorophyll c2 ng/L
Chl_C1Chlorophyll c1 ng/L
PeridininPeridinin ng/L
Ph_idePheophorbide a ng/L
But1919'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin ng/L
FucoFucoxanthin ng/L
NeoNeoxanthin ng/L
PrasinoPrasinoxanthin ng/L
ViolaViolaxanthin ng/L
Hex1919'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin ng/L
DDDiadinoxanthin ng/L
cis_Fucocis-Fucoxanthin ng/L
AlloAlloxanthin ng/L
DiatoDiatoxanthin ng/L
MonadMonadoxanthin ng/L
ZeaxZeaxanthin ng/L
LuteinLutein ng/L
CrocoCrocoxanthin ng/L
Chl_bChlorophyll b ng/L
Chlorophyll_c2_MGDGChlorophyll c2 MGDG ng/L
Chlorophyll_a_allomerChlorophyll a allomer ng/L
DV_Chl_aDivinyl chlorphyll a ng/L
Chl_aChlorophyll a ng/L
Ph_tinPhaeophytin a ng/L
a_CarAlpha-carotene ng/L
b_CarBeta-carotene ng/L
Total_Chl_aTotal Chlorophyll a ng/L

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Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
Niskin bottle
Generic Instrument Description
A Niskin bottle (a next generation water sampler based on the Nansen bottle) is a cylindrical, non-metallic water collection device with stoppers at both ends. The bottles can be attached individually on a hydrowire or deployed in 12, 24, or 36 bottle Rosette systems mounted on a frame and combined with a CTD. Niskin bottles are used to collect discrete water samples for a range of measurements including pigments, nutrients, plankton, etc.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
High Performance Liquid Chromatograph
Dataset-specific Description
Chlorophyll and accessory pigment composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; Agilent 1100).
Generic Instrument Description
A High-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) is a type of liquid chromatography used to separate compounds that are dissolved in solution. HPLC instruments consist of a reservoir of the mobile phase, a pump, an injector, a separation column, and a detector. Compounds are separated by high pressure pumping of the sample mixture onto a column packed with microspheres coated with the stationary phase. The different components in the mixture pass through the column at different rates due to differences in their partitioning behavior between the mobile liquid phase and the stationary phase.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Trimble GPS - PCODE
Generic Instrument Name
Global Positioning System Receiver
Generic Instrument Description
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a U.S. space-based radionavigation system that provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to civilian users on a continuous worldwide basis. The U.S. Air Force develops, maintains, and operates the space and control segments of the NAVSTAR GPS transmitter system. Ships use a variety of receivers (e.g. Trimble and Ashtech) to interpret the GPS signal and determine accurate latitude and longitude.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Sea-Bird 911+ CTD
Generic Instrument Name
CTD Sea-Bird SBE 911plus
Dataset-specific Description
Nathaniel B. Palmer Systems and Specifications
Generic Instrument Description
The Sea-Bird SBE 911 plus is a type of CTD instrument package for continuous measurement of conductivity, temperature and pressure. The SBE 911 plus includes the SBE 9plus Underwater Unit and the SBE 11plus Deck Unit (for real-time readout using conductive wire) for deployment from a vessel. The combination of the SBE 9 plus and SBE 11 plus is called a SBE 911 plus. The SBE 9 plus uses Sea-Bird's standard modular temperature and conductivity sensors (SBE 3 plus and SBE 4). The SBE 9 plus CTD can be configured with up to eight auxiliary sensors to measure other parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, fluorescence, light (PAR), light transmission, etc.). more information from Sea-Bird Electronics

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RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer
Start Date
End Date
Ross Sea, Antarctica (53 days) RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer : February-April 2013 McMurdo Station, Antarctica - Punta Arenas, Chile Project Title: “TRacing the fate of Algal Carbon Export in the Ross Sea” (TRACERS)Chief Scientist: Dennis Hansell, UM-RSMASProject Description: The research focus of this cruise was to investigate the biogeochemistry associated after a phytoplankton bloom at the end of the Antarctic Austral Summer. I helped analyze and coordinate analyses of nutrients (silicic acid, phosphate, and nitrate) and collect samples for dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Note R2R Link takes user to Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS):NBP1302 Nathaniel B. Palmer Systems and Specifications

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Project Information

TRacing the fate of Algal Carbon Export in the Ross Sea (TRACERS)

Coverage: Ross Sea

Sinking particles are a major element of the biological pump and they are commonly assigned to two fates: mineralization in the water column and accumulation at the seafloor. However, there is another fate of export hidden within the vertical decline of carbon, the transformation of sinking organic matter to fine suspended and/or dissolved organic fractions. This process has been suggested but has rarely been observed or quantified. As a result, it is presumed that the solubilized fraction is largely mineralized over short time scales. However, global ocean surveys of dissolved organic carbon are demonstrating a significant water column accumulation of organic matter under high productivity environments. This proposal will investigate the transformation of organic particles from sinking to solubilized phases of the export flux in the Ross Sea. The Ross Sea experiences high export particle production, low dissolved organic carbon export with overturning circulation, and the area has a predictable succession of production and export events. In addition, the basin is shallow (< 1000 m) so the products the PIs will target are relatively concentrated. To address the proposed hypothesis, the PIs will use both well-established and novel biochemical and optical measures of export production and its fate. The outcomes of this work will help researchers close the carbon budget in the Ross Sea.

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Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Polar Programs (NSF PLR)

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