Seawater chemistry calculated parameters from Crab-Oyster Behavior study from laboratory results from UNC from data collected at the Sapodilla Caye, Belize starting 2010 (OA - Ocean Acidification and Warming Impact on Calcification project)

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/563249
Version: 28 July 2015
Version Date: 2015-07-28

Project
» Investigation of the Effects of CaCO3 Saturation State and Temperature on the Calcification Rate and Skeletal Properties of Benthic Marine Calcifiers (OA - Ocean Acidification and Warming Impact on Calcification)

Program
» Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Ries, Justin B.University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-Chapel Hill)Principal Investigator
Dodd, Luke FUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-Chapel Hill-IMS)Contact
Gegg, Stephen R.Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager


Dataset Description

Impacts of OA on Crab-Oyster Behavior - Seawater Chemistry - Calculated Parameters

Seawater chemistry and predatory behavior observations


Acquisition Description

Experiments were conducted at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Organisms studied are present across much of the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts.

See manuscript: Ocean acidification impairs crab foraging behaviour


Processing Description

See manuscript: Ocean acidification impairs crab foraging behaviour

BCO-DMO Processing Notes
- Generated from original files "Behavioral data for archive.xlsx, Sheet: Seawater Chemistry" contributed by Luke Dodd
- Parameter names edited to conform to BCO-DMO naming convention found at Choosing Parameter Name
- "nd" (no data) inserted into blank cells
- names of some calculated parameters modified for ASCII text o/p


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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
ParameterCalculated parameter text
Units_DataUnits or Data measured calculated for parameter text
Control_pCO2Measured value at control pCO2 treatment level text
Moderate_pCO2Measured value at moderate pCO2 treatment level text
High_pCO2Measured value at high pCO2 treatment level text


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
UIC 5400
Generic Instrument Name
CO2 Coulometer
Dataset-specific Description
The temperature within experimental tanks was measured every other day with a NIST-calibrated partial-immersion organic- filled glass thermometer (precision + 0.3%, accuracy + 0.4%). Salinity was measured every other day with a YSI 3200 conduc- tivity meter with a YSI 3440 cell (K 1⁄4 10) that was calibrated with seawater standards of known salinity provided by the labora- tory of Prof. A. Dickson of Scripps Institute of Oceanography. Seawater pH was measured every other day with a Thermo Scien- tific Orion 2 Star benchtop pH meter with an Orion 9156BNWP pH probe, calibrated with 7.00 and 10.01 Orion NBS buffers traceable to NIST standard reference material (for slope of the calibration curve) and with seawater standards of known pH also provided by Prof. Dickson’s laboratory (for y-intercept of the calibration curve). Seawater DIC was measured via coulometry (UIC 5400) and TA was measured via closed-cell potentiometric Gran titration calibrated with certified Dickson TA/DIC standards. Measure- ment of DIC and TA of the certified reference materials (CRMs) were consistently within 0.3% of certified values. Differences between the measured and certified TA and DIC values of the CRMs were used to correct measurements of experimental seawater solutions.
Generic Instrument Description
A CO2 coulometer semi-automatically controls the sample handling and extraction of CO2 from seawater samples. Samples are acidified and the CO2 gas is bubbled into a titration cell where CO2 is converted to hydroxyethylcarbonic acid which is then automatically titrated with a coulometrically-generated base to a colorimetric endpoint.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
NIST-calibrated partial immersion organic-filled glass thermometer
Generic Instrument Name
Water Temperature Sensor
Dataset-specific Description
The temperature within experimental tanks was measured every other day with a NIST-calibrated partial-immersion organic- filled glass thermometer (precision + 0.3%, accuracy + 0.4%). Salinity was measured every other day with a YSI 3200 conduc- tivity meter with a YSI 3440 cell (K 1⁄4 10) that was calibrated with seawater standards of known salinity provided by the labora- tory of Prof. A. Dickson of Scripps Institute of Oceanography. Seawater pH was measured every other day with a Thermo Scien- tific Orion 2 Star benchtop pH meter with an Orion 9156BNWP pH probe, calibrated with 7.00 and 10.01 Orion NBS buffers traceable to NIST standard reference material (for slope of the calibration curve) and with seawater standards of known pH also provided by Prof. Dickson’s laboratory (for y-intercept of the calibration curve). Seawater DIC was measured via coulometry (UIC 5400) and TA was measured via closed-cell potentiometric Gran titration calibrated with certified Dickson TA/DIC standards. Measure- ment of DIC and TA of the certified reference materials (CRMs) were consistently within 0.3% of certified values. Differences between the measured and certified TA and DIC values of the CRMs were used to correct measurements of experimental seawater solutions.
Generic Instrument Description
General term for an instrument that measures the temperature of the water with which it is in contact (thermometer).

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Thermo Scientific Orion 2 Star benchtop pH meter with an Orion 9156BNWP pH probe
Generic Instrument Name
pH Sensor
Dataset-specific Description
The temperature within experimental tanks was measured every other day with a NIST-calibrated partial-immersion organic- filled glass thermometer (precision + 0.3%, accuracy + 0.4%). Salinity was measured every other day with a YSI 3200 conduc- tivity meter with a YSI 3440 cell (K 1⁄4 10) that was calibrated with seawater standards of known salinity provided by the labora- tory of Prof. A. Dickson of Scripps Institute of Oceanography. Seawater pH was measured every other day with a Thermo Scien- tific Orion 2 Star benchtop pH meter with an Orion 9156BNWP pH probe, calibrated with 7.00 and 10.01 Orion NBS buffers traceable to NIST standard reference material (for slope of the calibration curve) and with seawater standards of known pH also provided by Prof. Dickson’s laboratory (for y-intercept of the calibration curve). Seawater DIC was measured via coulometry (UIC 5400) and TA was measured via closed-cell potentiometric Gran titration calibrated with certified Dickson TA/DIC standards. Measure- ment of DIC and TA of the certified reference materials (CRMs) were consistently within 0.3% of certified values. Differences between the measured and certified TA and DIC values of the CRMs were used to correct measurements of experimental seawater solutions.
Generic Instrument Description
General term for an instrument that measures the pH or how acidic or basic a solution is.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Closed-cell potentiometric Gran titration
Generic Instrument Name
Automatic titrator
Dataset-specific Description
The temperature within experimental tanks was measured every other day with a NIST-calibrated partial-immersion organic- filled glass thermometer (precision + 0.3%, accuracy + 0.4%). Salinity was measured every other day with a YSI 3200 conduc- tivity meter with a YSI 3440 cell (K 1⁄4 10) that was calibrated with seawater standards of known salinity provided by the labora- tory of Prof. A. Dickson of Scripps Institute of Oceanography. Seawater pH was measured every other day with a Thermo Scien- tific Orion 2 Star benchtop pH meter with an Orion 9156BNWP pH probe, calibrated with 7.00 and 10.01 Orion NBS buffers traceable to NIST standard reference material (for slope of the calibration curve) and with seawater standards of known pH also provided by Prof. Dickson’s laboratory (for y-intercept of the calibration curve). Seawater DIC was measured via coulometry (UIC 5400) and TA was measured via closed-cell potentiometric Gran titration calibrated with certified Dickson TA/DIC standards. Measure- ment of DIC and TA of the certified reference materials (CRMs) were consistently within 0.3% of certified values. Differences between the measured and certified TA and DIC values of the CRMs were used to correct measurements of experimental seawater solutions.
Generic Instrument Description
Instruments that incrementally add quantified aliquots of a reagent to a sample until the end-point of a chemical reaction is reached.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Isolated 34 l tanks
Generic Instrument Name
Aquarium
Dataset-specific Description
Crabs and oysters were raised in isolated 34 l tanks for 71 days in seawater
Generic Instrument Description
Aquarium - a vivarium consisting of at least one transparent side in which water-dwelling plants or animals are kept


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Deployments

lab_Ries_UNC_Chapel_Hill

Website
Platform
Ries
Report
Start Date
2010-09-01
End Date
2099-01-01
Description
The Ries Lab


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Project Information

Investigation of the Effects of CaCO3 Saturation State and Temperature on the Calcification Rate and Skeletal Properties of Benthic Marine Calcifiers (OA - Ocean Acidification and Warming Impact on Calcification)


Coverage: Chapel Hill, North Carolina (lab) and Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System - Sapodilla Caye, Belize (16.2 N 88.5 W)


Description from NSF award abstract:
Anthropogenic elevation of atmospheric pCO2 is increasing the acidity of the oceans, thereby reducing the saturation state of seawater with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Of mounting concern is the potential impact of these changes on the ability of calcifying organisms to form their shells and skeletons. Recent studies, including pilot work conducted by investigator Ries and his colleagues on a suite of benthic marine calcifiers spanning broad taxonomic, mineralogical, and ecological ranges, have revealed that marine organisms exhibit a wide range of calcification responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification, including positive, negative, parabolic, threshold, and neutral responses. Marine calcifiers build their shells and skeletons from various forms (polymorphs) of CaCO3, most commonly aragonite, high-Mg calcite, and low-Mg calcite. These polymorphs differ greatly in their solubility in seawater and, therefore, in their potential response to CO2-induced ocean acidification. X-ray diffraction analysis of shells secreted by the organisms investigated in the pilot study reveals that the proportion of calcite (the less soluble form of CaCO3) to aragonite (the more soluble form) within their shells increases under elevated pCO2, while the Mg:Ca ratio of their calcite declines. These observations suggested that some marine calcifiers may partially adapt to a declining CaCO3 saturation state by accreting a greater proportion of the less-soluble form of CaCO3 (low-Mg calcite) at the expense of the more soluble forms (aragonite, high-Mg calcite). However, it is likely that such mineralogical and compositional changes in the shells and skeletons of marine organisms would alter their structural and biomechanical properties.

The project seeks to build upon the results of a pilot study by rearing a suite of benthic marine calcifiers under past (280 ppm), present (385 ppm), and predicted future (540, 840 ppm) pCO2 and under three distinct temperatures to investigate changes in: (1) their rates of calcification and linear extension; (2) the relative abundance and micron-scale distribution of the various CaCO3 polymorphs within their shells/skeletons; (3) the ultrastructure and crystal morphology of their shells/skeletons; and (4) their biomechanical properties. The research also builds upon the pilot experiments by utilizing a more thoroughly replicated study design, by more precisely constraining the chemical parameters of the experimental seawater treatments, by investigating calcification responses under 3 different temperature regimes, and by employing a "pre-industrial" pCO2 level (280 ppm). The results of the proposed research should advance our understanding of how benthic marine calcifiers shall respond to future CO2-induced changes in seawater temperature and CaCO3 saturation state. By investigating the response of organisms over the range of atmospheric pCO2 that has occurred since late Paleozoic time, this research should inform our understanding of the putative links between atmospheric pCO2, mass extinction events, and secular variation in the polymorph mineralogy of marine calcifiers throughout geologic time. Finally, comparison of the observed biological responses to variable pCO2-T scenarios with that already established for abiogenic carbonates will advance our understanding of the very mechanisms by which marine calcifiers build their shells and skeletons.

Results of this research project will inform the decisions of policy makers and legislators working to mitigate the impacts of CO2-induced warming and ocean acidification by establishing pCO2-T tolerances for a range of marine calcifiers.

Note (02 Oct 2014): Funding for this project has transferred from award OCE-1031995 to OCE-1357665, coincident with Principal Investigator's affiliation change from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to Northeastern University.



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Program Information

Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB)


Coverage: Global


The Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program focuses on the ocean's role as a component of the global Earth system, bringing together research in geochemistry, ocean physics, and ecology that inform on and advance our understanding of ocean biogeochemistry. The overall program goals are to promote, plan, and coordinate collaborative, multidisciplinary research opportunities within the U.S. research community and with international partners. Important OCB-related activities currently include: the Ocean Carbon and Climate Change (OCCC) and the North American Carbon Program (NACP); U.S. contributions to IMBER, SOLAS, CARBOOCEAN; and numerous U.S. single-investigator and medium-size research projects funded by U.S. federal agencies including NASA, NOAA, and NSF.

The scientific mission of OCB is to study the evolving role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle, in the face of environmental variability and change through studies of marine biogeochemical cycles and associated ecosystems.

The overarching OCB science themes include improved understanding and prediction of: 1) oceanic uptake and release of atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases and 2) environmental sensitivities of biogeochemical cycles, marine ecosystems, and interactions between the two.

The OCB Research Priorities (updated January 2012) include: ocean acidification; terrestrial/coastal carbon fluxes and exchanges; climate sensitivities of and change in ecosystem structure and associated impacts on biogeochemical cycles; mesopelagic ecological and biogeochemical interactions; benthic-pelagic feedbacks on biogeochemical cycles; ocean carbon uptake and storage; and expanding low-oxygen conditions in the coastal and open oceans.



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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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