Calcification and carbonate chemistry from outdoor flume experiments with corals at locations in Moorea, Okinawa, and Hawaii from 2011 to 2013

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/754718
Version: 1
Version Date: 2020-12-02

Project
» Moorea Coral Reef Long-Term Ecological Research site (MCR LTER)
» RUI: Ocean Acidification- Category 1- The effects of ocean acidification on the organismic biology and community ecology of corals, calcified algae, and coral reefs (OA_Corals)

Programs
» Long Term Ecological Research network (LTER)
» Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES): Ocean Acidification (formerly CRI-OA) (SEES-OA)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Carpenter, RobertCalifornia State University Northridge (CSUN)Principal Investigator
Comeau, SteeveCalifornia State University Northridge (CSUN)Co-Principal Investigator, Contact
Edmunds, Peter J.California State University Northridge (CSUN)Co-Principal Investigator
Scafidi, KathrynCalifornia State University Northridge (CSUN)Technician
Srednick, GriffinCalifornia State University Northridge (CSUN)Technician
York, Amber D.Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

Abstract
Pacific-wide contrast of reef calcifiers to ocean acidification. Data were published in Comeau et al. (2014). Calcification and carbonate chemistry from outdoor flume experiments with corals at locations in Moorea, Okinawa, and Hawaii from 2011 to 2013.


Coverage

Temporal Extent: 2011-09 - 2013-06

Methods & Sampling

See Comeau et al. (2014) for full methodology details.

Locations:  
UCB Gump Research Station, Moorea, French Polynesia
Sesoko Station, Tropical Biosphere Research Center, Okinawa, Japan
Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB), Coconut Island, Oahu, Hawaii

Methodology:

At the three locations, pH was measured twice daily using a porta- ble pH meter (Orion 3-stars) fitted with a DG 115-SC pH probe (Mettler) calibrated every other day with Tris/HCl buffers (A. Dickson, San Diego, CA, USA). In Moorea and in Hawaii, pH also was measured spectrophotometrically once a week using m- cresol dye.T was calculated using a modified Gran function applied to pH values ranging from 3.5 to 3.0. Parameters of the carbonate system in seawater were calculated from salinity, temperature, AT and pHT using the R package seacarb.

To quantify net calcification, the difference between the initial and final buoyant weight after 14 days of incubation was converted to dry weight using an aragonite density of 2.93 g cm-3 for corals and Halimeda macroloba, and a calcite density of 2.71 g cm-3 for Porolithon onkodes. Net calcification was normalized to surface area, obtained using the foil technique for corals, and image analysis (IMAGEJ, US NIH) of aerial photographs for P. onkodes.

Species list:

Halimeda macroloba (macroalga). AphiaID 211524
Pocillopora damicornis (coral). AphiaID 206953
Porolithon onkodes (macroalga). AphiaID 495983
massive Porites (coral). AphiaID 206485


Data Processing Description

R packages:
Lavigne H, Gattuso J-P. 2011. seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 2.4.1. http://CRAN.Rproject.org/ package=seacarb

BCO-DMO Data Manager Processing Notes:
* Original file submitted as folder/file "Comeau et al. 2014 - PRSB/comeau et al. 2014_data.xlsx" sheet "data" extracted to csv.
* added a conventional header with dataset name, PI name, version date
* modified parameter names to conform with BCO-DMO naming conventions: only A-Za-z0-9 and underscore allowed.  Can not start with a number.  (spaces, +, and - changed to underscores). 
* Taxon names checked using the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS).  Species list added to Acquisition Description including the AphiaIDs.


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Related Publications

Comeau, S., Carpenter, R. C., Nojiri, Y., Putnam, H. M., Sakai, K., & Edmunds, P. J. (2014). Pacific-wide contrast highlights resistance of reef calcifiers to ocean acidification. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1790), 20141339–20141339. doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.1339
Results
Davies, P.S. (1989). Short-term growth measurements of corals using an accurate buoyant weighing technique. Marine Biology, 101(3), 389–395. doi:10.1007/bf00428135 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00428135
Methods
Lavigne H, Gattuso J-P. (2011). seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 2.4.1. http://CRAN.Rproject.org/package=seacarb
Software
Nisumaa, A.-M., Pesant, S., Bellerby, R. G. J., Delille, B., Middelburg, J. J., Orr, J. C., … Gattuso, J.-P. (2010). EPOCA/EUR-OCEANS data compilation on the biological and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification. Earth System Science Data, 2(2), 167–175. doi:10.5194/essd-2-167-2010
Methods
Schneider, C. A., Rasband, W. S., ... (n.d.). ImageJ. US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Available from https://imagej.nih.gov/ij/
Software

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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
LocationLocation unitless
SpeciesSpecies. Identification in format Genus species (category or common name) unitless
pCO2water_SST_wet_1Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) uatm
ATAlkalinity, total. Potentiometric titration. umol/kg
pHpH, total scale. Potentiometric. total hydrogen ion scale (pHT)
TempTemperature, water degrees C
SalSalinity PSU
Calc_rate_CaCO3_surfCalcification rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) normalized by surface. Buoyant weighing technique (Davies, 1989). mg/cm2/day
Calc_rate_CaCO3_biomCalcification rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) normalized by biomass (tissue dry weight). Buoyant weighing technique (Davies, 1989). mg/g/day
Date_startDate and month of experiment start in format yyyy-mm unitless
Date_endDate and month of experiment end in format yyyy-mm unitless
CSC_flagCarbonate system computation flag. Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010). unitless
CO2Carbon dioxide. Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010). umol/kg
pCO2water_SST_wet_2Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air). Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010). uatm
fCO2water_SST_wetFugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air). Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010). uatm
Bicarbonate_ionBicarbonate ion [HCO3]-. Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010). umol/kg
Carbonate_ionCarbonate ion [CO3]2-. Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010). umol/kg
DICCarbon, inorganic, dissolved. Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010). umol/kg
Omega_ArgAragonite saturation state. Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010). Omega Arg (Ωa)
Omega_CalCalcite saturation state. Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010). Omega Cal (Ωcal)


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Mettler Toledo T50
Generic Instrument Name
Automatic titrator
Dataset-specific Description
TA: Mettler Toledo T50
Generic Instrument Description
Instruments that incrementally add quantified aliquots of a reagent to a sample until the end-point of a chemical reaction is reached.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
4p quantum sensor (LI-193) and a LiCor LI-1400
Generic Instrument Name
Light Meter
Dataset-specific Description
Light: 4p quantum sensor (LI-193) and a LiCor LI-1400 meter
Generic Instrument Description
Light meters are instruments that measure light intensity. Common units of measure for light intensity are umol/m2/s or uE/m2/s (micromoles per meter squared per second or microEinsteins per meter squared per second). (example: LI-COR 250A)

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
pH Sensor
Dataset-specific Description
pH: Orion 3-stars pH Meter fitted with a DG 115-SC pH probe
Generic Instrument Description
An instrument that measures the hydrogen ion activity in solutions. The overall concentration of hydrogen ions is inversely related to its pH.  The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 and indicates whether acidic (more H+) or basic (less H+). 

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
YSI 3100
Generic Instrument Name
Salinity Sensor
Generic Instrument Description
Category of instrument that simultaneously measures electrical conductivity and temperature in the water column to provide temperature and salinity data.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
ThermoFisher Traceable
Generic Instrument Name
Temperature Logger
Generic Instrument Description
Records temperature data over a period of time.


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Project Information

Moorea Coral Reef Long-Term Ecological Research site (MCR LTER)


Coverage: Island of Moorea, French Polynesia


From http://www.lternet.edu/sites/mcr/ and http://mcr.lternet.edu/:
The Moorea Coral Reef LTER site encompasses the coral reef complex that surrounds the island of Moorea, French Polynesia (17°30'S, 149°50'W). Moorea is a small, triangular volcanic island 20 km west of Tahiti in the Society Islands of French Polynesia. An offshore barrier reef forms a system of shallow (mean depth ~ 5-7 m), narrow (~0.8-1.5 km wide) lagoons around the 60 km perimeter of Moorea. All major coral reef types (e.g., fringing reef, lagoon patch reefs, back reef, barrier reef and fore reef) are present and accessible by small boat.

The MCR LTER was established in 2004 by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and is a partnership between the University of California Santa Barbara and California State University, Northridge. MCR researchers include marine scientists from the UC Santa Barbara, CSU Northridge, UC Davis, UC Santa Cruz, UC San Diego, CSU San Marcos, Duke University and the University of Hawaii. Field operations are conducted from the UC Berkeley Richard B. Gump South Pacific Research Station on the island of Moorea, French Polynesia.

MCR LTER Data: The Moorea Coral Reef (MCR) LTER data are managed by and available directly from the MCR project data site URL shown above.  The datasets listed below were collected at or near the MCR LTER sampling locations, and funded by NSF OCE as ancillary projects related to the MCR LTER core research themes.

This project is supported by continuing grants with slight name variations:
LTER: Long-Term Dynamics of a Coral Reef Ecosystem
LTER: MCR II - Long-Term Dynamics of a Coral Reef Ecosystem
LTER: MCR IIB: Long-Term Dynamics of a Coral Reef Ecosystem
LTER: MCR III: Long-Term Dynamics of a Coral Reef Ecosystem
LTER: MCR IV: Long-Term Dynamics of a Coral Reef Ecosystem


RUI: Ocean Acidification- Category 1- The effects of ocean acidification on the organismic biology and community ecology of corals, calcified algae, and coral reefs (OA_Corals)

Coverage: Moorea, French Polynesia


While coral reefs have undergone unprecedented changes in community structure in the past 50 y, they now may be exposed to their gravest threat since the Triassic. This threat is increasing atmospheric CO2, which equilibrates with seawater and causes ocean acidification (OA). In the marine environment, the resulting decline in carbonate saturation state (Omega) makes it energetically less feasible for calcifying taxa to mineralize; this is a major concern for coral reefs. It is possible that the scleractinian architects of reefs will cease to exist as a mineralized taxon within a century, and that calcifying algae will be severely impaired. While there is a rush to understand these effects and make recommendations leading to their mitigation, these efforts are influenced strongly by the notion that the impacts of pCO2 (which causes Omega to change) on calcifying taxa, and the mechanisms that drive them, are well-known. The investigators believe that many of the key processes of mineralization on reefs that are potentially affected by OA are only poorly known and that current knowledge is inadequate to support the scaling of OA effects to the community level. It is vital to measure organismal-scale calcification of key taxa, elucidate the mechanistic bases of these responses, evaluate community scale calcification, and finally, to conduct focused experiments to describe the functional relationships between these scales of mineralization.

This project is a 4-y effort focused on the effects of Ocean Acidification (OA) on coral reefs at multiple spatial and functional scales. The project focuses on the corals, calcified algae, and coral reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia, establishes baseline community-wide calcification data for the detection of OA effects on a decadal-scale, and builds on the research context and climate change focus of the Moorea Coral Reef LTER.

This project is a hypothesis-driven approach to compare the effects of OA on reef taxa and coral reefs in Moorea. The PIs will utilize microcosms to address the impacts and mechanisms of OA on biological processes, as well as the ecological processes shaping community structure. Additionally, studies of reef-wide metabolism will be used to evaluate the impacts of OA on intact reef ecosystems, to provide a context within which the experimental investigations can be scaled to the real world, and critically, to provide a much needed reference against which future changes can be gauged.

Datasets listed in the "Dataset Collection" section include references to results journal publications published as part of this project.



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Program Information

Long Term Ecological Research network (LTER)


Coverage: United States


adapted from http://www.lternet.edu/

The National Science Foundation established the LTER program in 1980 to support research on long-term ecological phenomena in the United States. The Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network is a collaborative effort involving more than 1800 scientists and students investigating ecological processes over long temporal and broad spatial scales. The LTER Network promotes synthesis and comparative research across sites and ecosystems and among other related national and international research programs. The LTER research sites represent diverse ecosystems with emphasis on different research themes, and cross-site communication, network publications, and research-planning activities are coordinated through the LTER Network Office.

LTER site location map

2017 LTER research site map obtained from https://lternet.edu/site/lter-network/


Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES): Ocean Acidification (formerly CRI-OA) (SEES-OA)


Coverage: global


NSF Climate Research Investment (CRI) activities that were initiated in 2010 are now included under Science, Engineering and Education for Sustainability NSF-Wide Investment (SEES). SEES is a portfolio of activities that highlights NSF's unique role in helping society address the challenge(s) of achieving sustainability. Detailed information about the SEES program is available from NSF (https://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=504707).

In recognition of the need for basic research concerning the nature, extent and impact of ocean acidification on oceanic environments in the past, present and future, the goal of the SEES: OA program is to understand (a) the chemistry and physical chemistry of ocean acidification; (b) how ocean acidification interacts with processes at the organismal level; and (c) how the earth system history informs our understanding of the effects of ocean acidification on the present day and future ocean.

Solicitations issued under this program:
NSF 10-530, FY 2010-FY2011
NSF 12-500, FY 2012
NSF 12-600, FY 2013
NSF 13-586, FY 2014
NSF 13-586 was the final solicitation that will be released for this program.

PI Meetings:
1st U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting(March 22-24, 2011, Woods Hole, MA)
2nd U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting(Sept. 18-20, 2013, Washington, DC)
3rd U.S. Ocean Acidification PI Meeting (June 9-11, 2015, Woods Hole, MA – Tentative)

NSF media releases for the Ocean Acidification Program:

Press Release 10-186 NSF Awards Grants to Study Effects of Ocean Acidification

Discovery Blue Mussels "Hang On" Along Rocky Shores: For How Long?

Discovery nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) Discoveries - Trouble in Paradise: Ocean Acidification This Way Comes - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 12-179 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Ocean Acidification: Finding New Answers Through National Science Foundation Research Grants - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 13-102 World Oceans Month Brings Mixed News for Oysters

Press Release 13-108 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Natural Underwater Springs Show How Coral Reefs Respond to Ocean Acidification - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 13-148 Ocean acidification: Making new discoveries through National Science Foundation research grants

Press Release 13-148 - Video nsf.gov - News - Video - NSF Ocean Sciences Division Director David Conover answers questions about ocean acidification. - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 14-010 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Palau's coral reefs surprisingly resistant to ocean acidification - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Press Release 14-116 nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Ocean Acidification: NSF awards $11.4 million in new grants to study effects on marine ecosystems - US National Science Foundation (NSF)



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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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