ASPIRE station data used to develop 1-D and 3-D numerical models from the Nathaniel B. Palmer in the Amundsen Sea from 2010-12-14 through 2011-01-05

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/765081
Data Type: Cruise Results
Version: 1
Version Date: 2019-04-17

Project
» Collaborative Research: Investigating the Role of Mesoscale Processes and Ice Dynamics in Carbon and Iron Fluxes in a Changing Amundsen Sea (INSPIRE) (INSPIRE)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Yager, Patricia L.University of Georgia (UGA)Principal Investigator
Sherrell, Robert M.Rutgers UniversityCo-Principal Investigator
Oliver, HildeUniversity of Georgia (UGA)Contact
Biddle, MathewWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

Abstract
Hydrographic profiles and discrete water samples were collected from each station using a conventional shipboard conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD; Sea-Bird 911+) sensor and a 24 × 10 L Niskin bottle rosette sampler (General Oceanics). Potential temperature (θ) and salinity (S) were recorded continuously as a function of depth and at the moment of Niskin bottle closure (see Yager et al., 2016). Trace-metal samples were collected similarly using a trace-metal-clean CTD-rosette system (see Sherrell et al., 2015) that was deployed at the same location just before or after the conventional CTD.


Coverage

Spatial Extent: N:-72.72 E:-112 S:-73.97 W:-118.03
Temporal Extent: 2010-12-14 - 2011-01-05

Dataset Description

Hydrographic profiles and discrete water samples were collected from each station using a conventional shipboard conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD; Sea-Bird 911+) sensor and a 24 × 10 L Niskin bottle rosette sampler (General Oceanics). Potential temperature (θ) and salinity (S) were recorded continuously as a function of depth and at the moment of Niskin bottle closure (see Yager et al., 2016).

Trace-metal samples were collected similarly using a trace-metal-clean CTD-rosette system (see Sherrell et al., 2015) that was deployed at the same location just before or after the conventional CTD. 


Acquisition Description

Dissolved inorganic nutrient samples were pre-filtered through 0.45-μm polycarbonate syringe filters, kept refrigerated, and analyzed onboard the ship within 1 day of sampling. Nitrate (NO3−), nitrite (NO2−), am- monium (NH4+), phosphate (HPO42−), and silicic acid (Si(OH)4) were measured using a five-channel Lachat Instruments QuikChem FIA+ 8000s series autoanalyzer in conjunction with a Lachat Instruments XYZ AutoSampler (ASX-500 Series), two Lachat Instruments RP-100 Series peristaltic Reagent Pumps, and Omnion Software, version 3.0.220.02. 

Seawater samples were analyzed for dissolved Fe over the period of January to August 2012, using an automated flow injection ICP-MS method developed at Rutgers University (Lagerström et al., 2013). Briefly, the automated device loaded a 9 mL aliquot of seawater, buffered online to pH 7.0 with 3 mL of acetic acid/ammonium hydroxide buffer, onto a column packed with Nobias PA1 chelating resin (Hitachi High-Technologies). The column was eluted with 1.5 M nitric acid directly into the nebulizer of an Element-1 sector field ICP-MS (Thermo-Finnigan, Bremen, Germany). The eluate, a 200-fold concentrate of the sample, was analyzed in medium resolution and temporal peak integration was performed in Matlab using a script written in-house. Quantification was carried out using isotope dilution (Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn) or a matrix-matched external standard curve (Mn). 

Samples for particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PN) were collected by cleanly filtering 100–600 mL of seawater onto a 25-mm diameter, combusted GF/F filter (nominal pore size of 0.7 μm) which was then folded sample side in and frozen at −80°C. Samples were processed at Rutgers University and analyzed using a Carlo-Erba CHN analyzer (Hedges and Stern, 1984). 

Water column Chl a concentration (used as a proxy for algal biomass) was measured onboard ship using acetone extraction and a spectrofluorometer (Alderkamp et al., 2015). Shipboard values were calibrated against a second set of samples collected similarly, flash-frozen in liquid N2, stored at −80°C, and analyzed at Mote Marine Lab using HPLC (Wright et al., 1991; see Alderkamp et al., 2015).


Processing Description

BCO-DMO Processing Notes:
 - combined data files on columns LocalDate, Station, and Depth
 - appended latitude and longitude coordinates for each station
 - sorted data by LocalDate, Station, Depth
 - added conventional header with dataset name, PI name, version date


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Related Publications

Alderkamp, A.-C., van Dijken, G. L., Lowry, K. E., Connelly, T. L., Lagerström, M., Sherrell, R. M., … Arrigo, K. R. (2015). Fe availability drives phytoplankton photosynthesis rates during spring bloom in the Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, 3, 000043. doi:10.12952/journal.elementa.000043
Sherrell, R. M., Lagerström, M. E., Forsch, K. O., Stammerjohn, S. E., & Yager, P. L. (2015). Dynamics of dissolved iron and other bioactive trace metals (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) in the Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, 3, 000071. doi:10.12952/journal.elementa.000071
St-Laurent, P., Yager, P. L., Sherrell, R. M., Stammerjohn, S. E., & Dinniman, M. S. (2017). Pathways and supply of dissolved iron in the Amundsen Sea (Antarctica). Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(9), 7135–7162. doi:10.1002/2017JC013162
St‐Laurent, P., Yager, P. L., Sherrell, R. M., Oliver, H., Dinniman, M. S., & Stammerjohn, S. E. (2019). Modeling the Seasonal Cycle of Iron and Carbon Fluxes in the Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(3), 1544–1565. doi:10.1029/2018JC014773
Yager, P., Sherrell, R., Stammerjohn, S., Ducklow, H., Schofield, O., Ingall, E., … van Dijken, G. (2016). A carbon budget for the Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica: Estimating net community production and export in a highly productive polar ecosystem. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, 4, 000140. doi:10.12952/journal.elementa.000140

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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
StationASPIRE station identifier unitless
LocalDateDate of ASPIRE sampling in yyyy-mm-dd format unitless
DepthDepth of sampling meters (m)
ChlaChlorophyll a concentration miligram per meter cubed (mg m-3)
DissFeParticulate organic nitrogen. milimole per meter cubed (mmol m-3)
TotalDINTotal dissolved inorganic nitrogen milimole per meter cubed (mmol m-3)
PONParticulate organic nitrogen. mmol m-3
lonslongitude with east values positive decimal degrees
latslatitude with north values positive decimal degrees


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Niskin bottle
Generic Instrument Name
Niskin bottle
Dataset-specific Description
24 × 10 L Niskin bottle rosette sampler (General Oceanics)
Generic Instrument Description
A Niskin bottle (a next generation water sampler based on the Nansen bottle) is a cylindrical, non-metallic water collection device with stoppers at both ends. The bottles can be attached individually on a hydrowire or deployed in 12, 24 or 36 bottle Rosette systems mounted on a frame and combined with a CTD. Niskin bottles are used to collect discrete water samples for a range of measurements including pigments, nutrients, plankton, etc.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Lachat Instruments QuikChem FIA+ 8000s series autoanalyzer
Generic Instrument Name
Nutrient Autoanalyzer
Dataset-specific Description
Nitrate (NO3−), nitrite (NO2−), am- monium (NH4+), phosphate (HPO42−), and silicic acid (Si(OH)4) were measured using a five-channel Lachat Instruments QuikChem FIA+ 8000s series autoanalyzer in conjunction with a Lachat Instruments XYZ AutoSampler (ASX-500 Series)
Generic Instrument Description
Nutrient Autoanalyzer is a generic term used when specific type, make and model were not specified. In general, a Nutrient Autoanalyzer is an automated flow-thru system for doing nutrient analysis (nitrate, ammonium, orthophosphate, and silicate) on seawater samples.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Sea-Bird 911+
Generic Instrument Name
CTD Sea-Bird SBE 911plus
Dataset-specific Description
Hydrographic profiles and discrete water samples were collected from each station using a conventional shipboard conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD; Sea-Bird 911+) sensor.
Generic Instrument Description
The Sea-Bird SBE 911plus is a type of CTD instrument package for continuous measurement of conductivity, temperature and pressure. The SBE 911plus includes the SBE 9plus Underwater Unit and the SBE 11plus Deck Unit (for real-time readout using conductive wire) for deployment from a vessel. The combination of the SBE 9plus and SBE 11plus is called a SBE 911plus. The SBE 9plus uses Sea-Bird's standard modular temperature and conductivity sensors (SBE 3plus and SBE 4). The SBE 9plus CTD can be configured with up to eight auxiliary sensors to measure other parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, fluorescence, light (PAR), light transmission, etc.). more information from Sea-Bird Electronics

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Carlo-Erba CHN analyzer
Generic Instrument Name
CHN Elemental Analyzer
Dataset-specific Description
Samples were processed at Rutgers University and analyzed using a Carlo-Erba CHN analyzer (Hedges and Stern, 1984).
Generic Instrument Description
A CHN Elemental Analyzer is used for the determination of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen content in organic and other types of materials, including solids, liquids, volatile, and viscous samples.


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Deployments

NBP1005

Website
Platform
RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer
Start Date
2010-11-26
End Date
2011-01-16
Description
Expedition by the USAP RV Nathaniel B. Palmer during austral summer 2010-11 to sampled the Amundsen Sea Polynya during the Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition (ASPIRE).  Also identified as OSO 2010-11 (Oden Southern Ocean – two vessel operation 2010-11) The US Research Icebreaker Nathaniel B. Palmer was joined by the Swedish Icebreaker Oden for a two-vessel expedition to the Amundsen Sea. Scientists on the Palmer focused on understanding the climate-sensitive dynamics of the open water region, known as a "polynya." Oden scientists investigated the sea ice ecosystem nearby.  The aim of both groups was to improve our understanding of how climate change will impact this important ecosystem. Note R2R Link takes user to Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS):NBP1005NBP1005A Data at MGDS were available as NBP1005 and NBP1005A.  The data are from the same expedition and are combined in BCO-DMO into the one deployment - NBP1005. Nathaniel B. Palmer Systems and Specifications


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Project Information

Collaborative Research: Investigating the Role of Mesoscale Processes and Ice Dynamics in Carbon and Iron Fluxes in a Changing Amundsen Sea (INSPIRE) (INSPIRE)

Coverage: The study area is the continental shelf of the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, 71-75S, 100-130W.


The Amundsen Sea, in the remote Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean, is one of the least well studied Antarctic continental shelf regions. It shares characteristics in common with other Antarctic ice shelf regions, but exhibits unique aspects also. The Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP), an open region at the base of several of the terminal glaciers draining the West Antarctic Ice sheet exhibits: 1) large intrusions of heat delivered from the warming modified circumpolar deep water (mCDW) rising up onto the continental shelf, 2) the fastest melting ice sheets in Antarctica, 3) the most productive coastal polynya (161 g C m-2) together with a significant atmospheric CO2 sink, and 4) some of the most rapidly declining regions of seasonal off-shore sea ice on Earth. Following on from an earlier oceanographic field program, the Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition (ASPIRE; 2011), this study seeks to better synthesize and model the relative contributions of both physical ocean-ice linkages and biological production and carbon export terms and to compare these with other circumpolar Antarctic regions. A central feature will be the use of a regionally coupled physical-biogeochemical model to follow the dynamics of the large phytoplankton blooms that occur annually in the Amundsen Sea Polyna. This study will provides a means to locate the Amundsen Sea properties along the continuum of Antarctic ice shelf systems, and to understand how these system might change in response to climate change. Pedagogical techniques will be used to provide educational outreach for three distinct target populations: secondary students, pre-service science teachers, and in-service science teachers. Partnerships will be developed with science teacher educators to implement the STEM career-development lessons in undergraduate and graduate level science teacher education courses.


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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Antarctic Sciences (NSF ANT)
NSF Antarctic Sciences (NSF ANT)
NSF Antarctic Sciences (NSF ANT)
NSF Antarctic Sciences (NSF ANT)
NSF Antarctic Sciences (NSF ANT)
NSF Office of Polar Programs (formerly NSF PLR) (NSF OPP)
NSF Office of Polar Programs (formerly NSF PLR) (NSF OPP)
NSF Office of Polar Programs (formerly NSF PLR) (NSF OPP)
NSF Office of Polar Programs (formerly NSF PLR) (NSF OPP)

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