Bottle data from CTD casts conducted on R/V Endeavor cruise EN640 from June-July 2019

Data Type: Cruise Results
Version: 3
Version Date: 2021-04-23

» Collaborative Research: Impact of the Amazon River Plume on Nitrogen Availability and Planktonic Food Web Dynamics in the Western Tropical North Atlantic (Amazon River Plume Nitrogen)
Montoya, JosephGeorgia Institute of Technology (GA Tech)Chief Scientist
Peterson, Richard N.Coastal Carolina UniversityCo-Principal Investigator
Subramaniam, AjitLamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO)Co-Principal Investigator
Rauch, ShannonWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

This dataset contains bottle data from CTD casts conducted on R/V Endeavor cruise EN640 from June-July 2019.


Spatial Extent: N:16.035 E:-50.38404 S:4.87905 W:-60.02314
Temporal Extent: 2019-06-15 - 2019-07-08

Acquisition Description

Hydrographic data were collected during casts with a CTD-rosette system (SBE11plus) equipped with a fluorometer, transmissometer, oxygen sensor, and a PAR sensor.

Processing Description

Data Processing:Data were processed using SeaSave v See Supplemental File "EN640_CTD_Sea-Bird_File_Header" (PDF) for a representative file header, which includes the SeaSave processing steps. Refer to Supplemental File "EN640_CTD_Data_Notes" (PDF) for Excel processing notes.

BCO-DMO Processing:
- converted date/time fields to ISO8601 format;
- renamed fields to comply with BCO-DMO naming conventions.

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FileNameOriginal name of data file unitless
CruiseCruise identifer unitless
StationStation number unitless
StnEventNumeric identifier for each deployment in the format SSS.EE. SSS is the station number and EE identifies the specific sampling event. unitless
BottleIDBottle identifier (station, event, bottle) unitless
BottleBottle number unitless
ISO_DateTime_UTCDate and time (UTC) in ISO8601 format: YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ unitless
Sal00Salinity, Practical PSU
Sal11Salinity, Practical, 2 PSU
Sigma_t00Density [sigma-theta] kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m^3)
Sigma_t11Density, 2 [sigma-theta] kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m^3)
Sbeox0Mm_LOxygen, SBE 43, WS = 2 micromoles per liter (umol/l)
Sbeox1Mm_LOxygen, SBE 43, 2, WS = 2 micromoles per liter (umol/l)
Potemp090COxygen, SBE 43, WS = 2 micromoles per liter (umol/l)
Potemp190COxygen, SBE 43, 2, WS = 2 micromoles per liter (umol/l)
SvCMSound Velocity [Chen-Millero] meters per second (m/s)
SvCM1Sound Velocity, 2 [Chen-Millero] meters per second (m/s)
ScanScan count unitless
Scan_SDStandard deviation of Scan unitless
TimeJJulian day (UTC) unitless
TimeJ_SDStandard deviation of TimeJ unitless
TimeSTime elapsed seconds
TimeS_SDStandard deviation of TimeS seconds
PrDMPressure, Digiquartz decibars (db)
PrDM_SDStandard deviation of PrDM decibars (db)
DepSMDepth [salt water, m] meters (m)
DepSM_SDStandard deviation of DepSM meters (m)
T090CTemperature [ITS-90] degrees Celsius
T090C_SDStandard deviation of T090C degrees Celsius
T190CTemperature, 2 [ITS-90] degrees Celsius
T190C_SDStandard deviation of T190C degrees Celsius
T2_T190CTemperature Difference, 2 - 1 [ITS-90] degrees Celsius
T2_T190C_SDStandard deviation of T2_T190C degrees Celsius
C0S_mConductivity Siemens per meter (S/m)
C0S_m_SDStandard deviation of C0S_m Siemens per meter (S/m)
C1S_mConductivity, 2 Siemens per meter (S/m)
C1S_m_SDStandard deviation of C1S_m Siemens per meter (S/m)
C2_C1S_mConductivity Difference, 2 - 1 Siemens per meter (S/m)
C2_C1S_m_SDStandard deviation of C2_C1S_m Siemens per meter (S/m)
V0Voltage 0 volts (V)
V0_SDStandard deviation of V0 volts (V)
CStarAt0Beam Attenuation, WET Labs C-Star reciprocal meters (1/m)
CStarAt0_SDStandard deviation of CStarAt0 reciprocal meters (1/m)
CStarTr0Beam Transmission, WET Labs C-Star percent (%)
CStarTr0_SDStandard deviation of CStarTr0 percent (%)
V1Voltage 1 volts (V)
V1_SDStandard deviation of V1 volts (V)
FlECO_AFLFluorescence, WET Labs ECO-AFL/FL milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m^3)
FlECO_AFL_SDStandard deviation of FIECO_AFL milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m^3)
V2Voltage 2 volts (V)
V2_SDStandard deviation of V2 volts (V)
AltMAltimeter meters (m)
AltM_SDStandard deviation of AltM meters (m)
V3Voltage 3 volts (V)
V3_SDStandard deviation of V3 volts (V)
ParPAR/Irradiance, Biospherical/Licor micromoles photons per square meter per second (umol photons/m^2/sec)
Par_SDStandard deviation of Par micromoles photons per square meter per second (umol photons/m^2/sec)
V4Voltage 4 volts (V)
V4_SDStandard deviation of V4 volts (V)
Sbeox0VOxygen raw, SBE 43 volts (V)
Sbeox0V_SDStandard deviation of Sbeox0V volts (V)
V5Voltage 5 volts (V)
V5_SDStandard deviation of V5 volts (V)
Sbeox1VOxygen raw, SBE 43, 2 volts (V)
Sbeox1V_SDStandard deviation of Sbeox1V volts (V)
V6Voltage 6 volts (V)
V6_SDStandard deviation of V6 volts (V)
V7Voltage 7 volts (V)
V7_SDStandard deviation of V7 volts (V)
SparSPAR, Biospherical/Licor micromoles photons per square meter per second (umol photons/m^2/sec)
Spar_SDStandard deviation of Spar micromoles photons per square meter per second (umol photons/m^2/sec)
LatitudeLatitude degrees North
Latitude_SDStandard deviation of Latitude degrees North
LongitudeLongitude degrees East
Longitude_SDStandard deviation of Longitude degrees East

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Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
Niskin bottle
Generic Instrument Description
A Niskin bottle (a next generation water sampler based on the Nansen bottle) is a cylindrical, non-metallic water collection device with stoppers at both ends. The bottles can be attached individually on a hydrowire or deployed in 12, 24, or 36 bottle Rosette systems mounted on a frame and combined with a CTD. Niskin bottles are used to collect discrete water samples for a range of measurements including pigments, nutrients, plankton, etc.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Seabird SBE 11plus v5.2
Generic Instrument Name
CTD Sea-Bird
Generic Instrument Description
Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) sensor package from SeaBird Electronics, no specific unit identified. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known. See also other SeaBird instruments listed under CTD. More information from Sea-Bird Electronics.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
PAR/Irradiance & SPAR, Biospherical/Licor
Generic Instrument Name
LI-COR Biospherical PAR Sensor
Generic Instrument Description
The LI-COR Biospherical PAR Sensor is used to measure Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) in the water column. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Oxygen, SBE 43
Generic Instrument Name
Sea-Bird SBE 43 Dissolved Oxygen Sensor
Generic Instrument Description
The Sea-Bird SBE 43 dissolved oxygen sensor is a redesign of the Clark polarographic membrane type of dissolved oxygen sensors. more information from Sea-Bird Electronics

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Fluorometer, WET Labs ECO-AFL/FL
Generic Instrument Name
Wet Labs ECO-AFL/FL Fluorometer
Generic Instrument Description
The Environmental Characterization Optics (ECO) series of single channel fluorometers delivers both high resolution and wide ranges across the entire line of parameters using 14 bit digital processing. The ECO series excels in biological monitoring and dye trace studies. The potted optics block results in long term stability of the instrument and the optional anti-biofouling technology delivers truly long term field measurements. more information from Wet Labs

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Transmissometer, WET Labs C-Star
Generic Instrument Name
Wet Labs CSTAR Transmissometer
Generic Instrument Description
A highly integrated opto-electronic design to provide a low cost, compact solution for underwater measurements of beam transmittance. The instrument is capable of either free space measurements, or through the use of an optical flow tube, flow-through sampling with a pump. It can be used in profiling, moored, or underway applications. more information from Wet Labs

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R/V Endeavor
Start Date
End Date
See more information from R2R:

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Project Information

Collaborative Research: Impact of the Amazon River Plume on Nitrogen Availability and Planktonic Food Web Dynamics in the Western Tropical North Atlantic (Amazon River Plume Nitrogen)

Coverage: Amazon River plume

NSF Award Abstract:
This is a focused program of field research in waters of the Western Tropical North Atlantic influenced by the Amazon River Plume during the high river flow season. The Amazon Plume region supports diverse plankton communities in a dynamic system driven by nutrients supplied by transport from the river proper as well as nutrients entrained from offshore waters by physical mixing and upwelling. This creates strong interactions among physical, chemical, and biological processes across a range of spatial and temporal scales. The field program will link direct measurements of environmental properties with focused experimental studies of nutrient supply and nutrient limitation of phytoplankton, as well as the transfer of phytoplankton nitrogen to the zooplankton food web. The Amazon Plume exhibits a close juxtaposition of distinct communities during the high-flow season, making it an ideal site for evaluating how nutrient availability, nutrient supply, and habitat longevity interact to drive offshore ecosystem dynamics and function. This project will include German collaborators and will seamlessly integrate education and research efforts. The investigators and their institutions have a strong commitment to undergraduate and graduate education and to increasing the diversity of the ocean science community through active recruiting and training efforts. The team has a strong track record of involving both undergraduate and graduate students in their field and lab research. The two research cruises planned will provide opportunities for students and technicians to interact with an interdisciplinary and international research team.

The ultimate objectives of this project are to understand the processes and interactions that promote distinct communities of nitrogen-fixing organisms (diazotrophs) and other phytoplankton around the Amazon Plume and to explore the impacts of these diazotroph-rich communities on zooplankton biomass and production. The research team includes scientists with expertise in nutrient and stable isotope biogeochemistry, remote sensing as well as specialists in characterizing water mass origin and history using naturally occurring radium isotopes. This combination of approaches will provide a unique opportunity to address fundamental questions related to plankton community structure, primary production, and links to secondary production in pelagic ecosystems. The project will address the following key questions focused on fundamental issues in plankton ecology resulting from previous research in this region:

A. What mechanisms promote the preferential delivery of bioavailable phosphorus and the resulting strong nitrogen limitation associated with the northern reaches of the Amazon Plume during the high flow season?

B. What factors lead to the clear niche separation between diazotrophs within and around the Amazon Plume and how are the distinct diazotroph communities influenced by hydrographic and biogeochemical controls associated with the Amazon River Plume and offshore upwelling processes?

C. How does the nitrogen fixed by the different types of diazotrophs contribute to secondary production, and how efficiently does diazotroph nitrogen move through the food web?

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Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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