Larvae collected near Mariana Back-Arc hydrothermal vents in 2010

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/877284
Data Type: Cruise Results
Version: 1
Version Date: 2022-08-05

Project
» RAPID: Larval Abundance, Behavior and Dispersal at Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vents in the Southern Mariana Trough (Mariana Back-arc Vents)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Beaulieu, StaceWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)Principal Investigator
Mills, SusanWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)Co-Principal Investigator
Mullineaux, LaurenWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)Co-Principal Investigator
Rauch, ShannonWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

Abstract
This dataset provides the counts for larvae, identified to varying levels of taxonomic granularity, collected near Mariana Back-Arc hydrothermal vent sites (Snail, Archaean, and Urashima) in 2010 on cruise YK10-11 aboard R/V Yokosuka. Samples were collected using large-volume plankton pumps and sorted morphologically under a dissecting microscope. The larval counts data table is partially aligned to a Darwin Core occurrence table, and the sampling events data table is partially aligned to a Darwin Core event table. Samples were sorted completely, thus concentrations per taxon may be derived from the counts and volume filtered.


Coverage

Spatial Extent: N:12.9526 E:143.6485 S:12.9225 W:143.6188
Temporal Extent: 2010-09-05 - 2010-09-11

Acquisition Description

Larval collection:
These larvae were collected near three hydrothermal vent sites (Snail, Archaean, or Urashima) on the Mariana Back-Arc Spreading Center in the southern Mariana Trough in September 2010 on R/V Yokosuka cruise YK10-11. See the Sampling Events Supplemental File for specific locations and dates.

To collect larvae, we deployed large-volume plankton pumps (McLane WTS-LV50, East Falmouth, MA, USA) to sample at 3 or 4 m above the bottom. Each pump sampled for up to 24 hrs at 30 liters per minute over a 63 micron mesh, yielding a filtered volume of up to 41.5 cubic meters. We provide as a supplemental data file a table of sampling events matched to Station Information in the Marine Geoscience Data System (https://www.marine-geo.org/tools/search/Events.php?event_set_uid=1185).

Shipboard sample processing:
Upon recovery, pump filters were rinsed with filtered seawater into trays on ice and examined live to select some individuals for experiments reported by Beaulieu et al. (2015, DOI:10.1111/maec.12207). Within an hour the trays were poured over a 63-um sieve and washed using 95% non-denatured ethanol into a 250 mL jar. Individuals used in the experiments were saved separately, either frozen or preserved in ethanol.

Laboratory sorting and morphological identification:
Samples were poured over nested 300-um and 63-um sieves and washed into dishes for sorting under a dissecting scope at magnifications up to 50X. Individuals were identified to morphotypes at lowest taxonomic level (original categories for morphospecies). All morphospecies were enumerated except for ostracods and copepods which were only accounted as “p” present, “a” absent, or “n” not accounted for. We used the original category plus genetic evidence when available to match our lowest-level identification to the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) taxonomic database. Some morphotypes contain morphologically indistinguishable larvae from multiple species (e.g., complex nectochaetes); in this case, our final categories for morphospecies group those individuals with genetic evidence into the higher taxon rank. The table is organized such that the first row listing a final category morphospecies is at the higher taxon rank containing the subsequent rows for that category (in general, the subsequent rows are for specimens sent out for genetic analyses). Note that the polychaetes classified to Infraclass Scolecida correspond to the “Capitellid” larval morphotype in Beaulieu et al. (2015). We thank Dr. Takenori Sasaki for guidance for identification of gastropods.

Additional genetic evidence to assist with larval identification:
A subset of these specimens with 28S rRNA sequences is described in a separate BCO-DMO dataset (Beaulieu et al., 2021, DOI:10.26008/1912/bco-dmo.839476.1, https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/839476). We'd like to thank Dr. Hiroka Hidaka, Dr. Shigeaki Kojima, and Dr. Hiromi Watanabe for providing histone 3 sequences for gastropod specimens and Dr. Florence Pradillon for providing cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) sequences for polychaete specimens. We thank Bethany Fleming for NCBI BLAST query.


Processing Description

Data Processing:
Counts per morphospecies were entered into an electronic online spreadsheet (Google sheet) that was downloaded to a local .xlsx copy. The scientificName column was used with the WoRMS Taxon Match Tool to obtain a text file with the LSID and taxonomic classification and to confirm taxon status accepted on 2022-02-12. The larval_counts sheet in the .xlsx and the Taxon Match .txt were read into an R programming script to join columns into the larval counts data table https://github.com/sbeaulieu/EPR-traits/blob/master/Mariana_larval_counts_BCODMO.R. Another sheet in the .xlsx was exported to a csv file as the sampling event table. The data tables are partially aligned to Darwin Core so that they ultimately can be provided to the Ocean Biodiversity Information System (OBIS) and Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Note that 25 individuals with occurrenceID have already been contributed to OBIS and GBIF.

BCO-DMO Processing:
- replaced "NA" with "nd" (no data);
- renamed fields to comply with BCO-DMO naming conventions;
- removed commas from values in columns Fleming_etal_Table, final_category_morphospecies, and original_category_morphospecies;
- changed long text string in original_category_morphospecies, row 13 as requested by PI.


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Supplemental Files

File
Mariana Sampling Events
filename: Mariana_sampling_events_BCODMO_20220221.csv
(Comma Separated Values (.csv), 829 bytes)
MD5:ea9edca5a56a5545a2c375d1e7f04687
Table of sampling events associated with the dataset "Larvae collected near Mariana Back-Arc hydrothermal vents in 2010" (ID: 877284).

Authors: Stace Beaulieu, Susan Mills, Lauren Mullineaux

Date: 2022-02-22

Column definitions and units are below and also in the attached PDF ("Mariana Sampling Events Column Header Definitions").

Column Header: Description (Units)
eventID: An identifier for the set of information associated with a sampling event that concatenates the cruise identifier and the mooring deployment Darwin Core term http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/eventID (unitless)
locality: The specific description of the place near the sampling event, using names of vent fields and sites in the InterRidge Vents Database Ver. 3.4 https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.917894 Darwin Core term http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/locality (unitless)
decimalLatitude: The geographic latitude in decimal degrees of the sampling near the locality. Positive values are north of the Equator, negative values are south of it Darwin Core term http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLatitude (degrees)
decimalLongitude: The geographic longitude in decimal degrees of the sampling near the locality. Positive values are east of the Greenwich Meridian, negative values are west of it Darwin Core term http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLongitude (degrees)
Bottom_Depth_Meters: Depth below sea level of the seafloor under the sampling event (meters (m))
minimumDepthInMeters: The lesser depth of a range of depth below sea level for the sampling event Darwin Core term http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/minimumDepthInMeters (meters (m))
maximumDepthInMeters: The greater depth of a range of depth below sea level for the sampling event Darwin Core term http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/maximumDepthInMeters (meters (m))
eventDate: The date of the sampling event when the pump stopped Darwin Core term http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/eventDate Format: YYYY-MM-DD (unitless)
Volume_Filtered_L: Volume of seawater pumped over 63-um filter for the sampling event (liters (L))
Station_MGDS: Station Information event_name in Marine Geoscience Data System https://www.marine-geo.org/tools/search/Events.php?event_set_uid=1185 (unitless)

Missing data identifier = NA
Mariana Sampling Events Column Header Definitions
filename: Mariana_sampling_events_column_header_definitions_20220222.pdf
(Portable Document Format (.pdf), 375.26 KB)
MD5:fcb40fbbd2c2c3601dbd17c0817957d3
Column definitions and units for the "Mariana Sampling Events" file.

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Related Publications

Beaulieu, S. (2022). Script to join Mariana larval counts with WoRMS Taxon Match. https://github.com/sbeaulieu/EPR-traits/blob/master/Mariana_larval_counts_BCODMO.R
Software
Beaulieu, S. E., Mills, S., Mullineaux, L., Pradillon, F., Watanabe, H., & Kojima, S. (2011). International study of larval dispersal and population connectivity at hydrothermal vents in the U.S. Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. OCEANS’11 MTS/IEEE KONA. https://doi.org/10.23919/oceans.2011.6107064 https://doi.org/10.23919/OCEANS.2011.6107064
Related Research
Beaulieu, S. E., Sayre-McCord, R. T., Mills, S. W., Pradillon, F., & Watanabe, H. (2015). Swimming speeds of polychaete larvae collected near deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Marine Ecology, 36, 133–143. Portico. https://doi.org/10.1111/maec.12207
Related Research
Carrier, T. J., Beaulieu, S. E., Mills, S. W., Mullineaux, L. S., & Reitzel, A. M. (2021). Larvae of Deep-Sea Invertebrates Harbor Low-Diversity Bacterial Communities. The Biological Bulletin, 241(1), 65–76. doi:10.1086/715669
Related Research
Fleming, B. et al., 2022, manuscript in prep.
Results
R Core Team (2020). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R v4.0.3. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL https://www.R-project.org/
Software

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Related Datasets

IsRelatedTo
Beaulieu, S., Carrier, T., Mills, S., Mullineaux, L., Reitzel, A. (2021) Sampling locations and identifications for larvae collected near three deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields from 2007 to 2017. Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). (Version 1) Version Date 2021-02-02 doi:10.26008/1912/bco-dmo.839476.1 [view at BCO-DMO]
Relationship Description: A subset of specimens identified in dataset 877284 ("Larvae collected near Mariana Back-Arc hydrothermal vents in 2010") with 28S rRNA sequences is described in dataset 839476 ("Deep-sea larvae for microbiome study").
R/V Yokosuka cruise YK10-11 in Marine Geoscience Data System. http://www.marine-geo.org/tools/search/entry.php?id=YK10-11

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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
Fleming_etal_TableCategory with some morphospecies grouped for analysis by Fleming et al. manuscript in prep. unitless
scientificNameScientific name at the lowest level that matches original_category_morphospecies from the World Register of Marine Species that pairs to the LSID Darwin Core term http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/scientificName unitless
LSIDLife Science Identifier for the AphiaID in the World Register of Marine Species that pairs to the scientificName unitless
taxonRankTaxon rank for the scientificName in the World Register of Marine Species Darwin Core term http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/taxonRank unitless
final_category_morphospeciesFinal category for determining abundance from morphological sorting. Some individuals in this morphospecies may be identified to lower taxonomic level but that could not be applied to all individuals. unitless
original_category_morphospeciesOriginal category for morphological sorting to lowest taxonomic level unitless
individuals_with_genetic_sequencesIdentifiers for individuals with genetic sequence data. Those listed with occurrenceID match to TubeID in DOI:10.26008/1912/bco-dmo.839476.1, otherwise gastropod identifiers for H. Hidaka, polychaete identifiers for F. Pradillon. unitless
occurrenceIDA unique identifier for the Occurrence record in DOI:10.26008/1912/bco-dmo.839476.1 provided to OBIS and GBIF that concatenates the eventID with the individual identifier Darwin Core term http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/occurrenceID unitless
Pump1_Snail_300Count for individuals retained on 300 um sieve from pump mooring deployment 1 at locality Snail Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump1_Snail_63Count for individuals that passed through 300 um retained on 63 um sieve from pump mooring deployment 1 at locality Snail Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump1_Snail_shipCount for individuals sorted live onboard ship from pump mooring deployment 1 at locality Snail Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump2_Snail_300Count for individuals retained on 300 um sieve from pump mooring deployment 2 at locality Snail Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump2_Snail_63Count for individuals that passed through 300 um retained on 63 um sieve from pump mooring deployment 2 at locality Snail Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump2_Snail_shipCount for individuals sorted live onboard ship from pump mooring deployment 2 at locality Snail Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump3_Archaean_300Count for individuals retained on 300 um sieve from pump mooring deployment 3 at locality Archaean Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump3_Archaean_63Count for individuals that passed through 300 um retained on 63 um sieve from pump mooring deployment 3 at locality Archaean Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump3_Archaean_shipCount for individuals sorted live onboard ship from pump mooring deployment 3 at locality Archaean Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump4_Archaean_300Count for individuals retained on 300 um sieve from pump mooring deployment 4 at locality Archaean Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump4_Archaean_63Count for individuals that passed through 300 um retained on 63 um sieve from pump mooring deployment 4 at locality Archaean Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump4_Archaean_shipCount for individuals sorted live onboard ship from pump mooring deployment 4 at locality Archaean Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump5_Urashima_300Count for individuals retained on 300 um sieve from pump mooring deployment 5 at locality Urashima Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump5_Urashima_63Count for individuals that passed through 300 um retained on 63 um sieve from pump mooring deployment 5 at locality Urashima Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump5_Urashima_shipCount for individuals sorted live onboard ship from pump mooring deployment 5 at locality Urashima Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump6_Urashima_300Count for individuals retained on 300 um sieve from pump mooring deployment 6 at locality Urashima Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump6_Urashima_63Count for individuals that passed through 300 um retained on 63 um sieve from pump mooring deployment 6 at locality Urashima Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
Pump6_Urashima_shipCount for individuals sorted live onboard ship from pump mooring deployment 6 at locality Urashima Integer count or p,a,n ("present", "absent", "not accounted for")
KingdomKingdom for the scientificName in the World Register of Marine Species unitless
PhylumPhylum for the scientificName in the World Register of Marine Species unitless
ClassClass for the scientificName in the World Register of Marine Species unitless
OrderOrder for the scientificName in the World Register of Marine Species unitless
FamilyFamily for the scientificName in the World Register of Marine Species unitless
GenusGenus for the scientificName in the World Register of Marine Species unitless
SpeciesSpecies for the scientificName in the World Register of Marine Species unitless


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
McLane WTS-LV50
Generic Instrument Name
McLane Large Volume Pumping System WTS-LV
Generic Instrument Description
The Large Volume Pumping System-WTS-LV can be one of several different models of Water Transfer Systems (WTS) Large Volume (LV) pumping systems designed and manufactured by McLane Research Labs (Falmouth, MA, USA). The Large Volume Water Transfer System (WTS-LV) is a large volume single-event sampler that collects suspended and dissolved particulate samples in situ into a 142mm membrane filter. The WTS-LV allows for a choice of pump size and filter porosity for a range of specimen collection. Collection targets include chlorophyll maximum, particulate trace metals, and phytoplankton.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
dissecting scope
Generic Instrument Name
Microscope - Optical
Generic Instrument Description
Instruments that generate enlarged images of samples using the phenomena of reflection and absorption of visible light. Includes conventional and inverted instruments. Also called a "light microscope".


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Deployments

YK10-11

Website
Platform
R/V Yokosuka
Report
Start Date
2010-09-03
End Date
2010-09-15
Description


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Project Information

RAPID: Larval Abundance, Behavior and Dispersal at Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vents in the Southern Mariana Trough (Mariana Back-arc Vents)

Coverage: Southern Mariana Trough


NSF Award Abstract:
Summary: Since the discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents over thirty years ago, scientists have been perplexed by the question: How are these vent sites colonized and, more specifically, How are the faunal populations established and maintained at these very discrete and often ephemeral habitats. For animals that are sessile or have limited mobility as adults, dispersal to these habitats occurs early in the life cycle, as planktonic larvae in the water column. Due to the difficulties in sampling deep-sea larvae, including low abundances (dilute concentrations), we have very few quantitative estimates of larval dispersal between or larval supply to hydrothermal vents. We also have little to no knowledge of the behavior of vent larvae. The PIs will use large-volume plankton pumps to collect larvae near vents in the southern Mariana Trough in a collaborative effort to quantify larval abundance, behavior, and dispersal in this little-studied region. The collaboration combines the PI's strengths in the collection and morphological identification of larvae and quantifying and modeling dispersal between deep-sea vents, and those of Japanese partners in rearing larvae of hydrothermal vent fauna, molecular genetic identification of larvae, and population genetics of vent fauna.

Intellectual merit: The southern Mariana Trough is a very interesting region in which to study dispersal of vent-endemic fauna, due to the proximity of vents in the back-arc spreading center to vents along the Mariana Arc. These two tectonic settings create different habitat conditions and support vent communities with different species composition. Vent sites the PIs will visit, in the axis and just off-axis of the back-arc spreading center are as close as 25 km to vents on the arc, yet 600 km south of the other known vents in the back-arc. In addition to the new information on larval abundance, diversity, behavior, and dispersal that will be gained for this little-studied region of the world's ridge system, this project has direct relevance to the integration and synthesis goals of the U.S. Ridge 2000 Program. The PI's lab group has conducted previous work at the Ridge 2000 East Pacific Rise (EPR) Integrated Studies Site (ISS). They will be making a direct comparison of the larval abundance and diversity at the EPR ISS to this very different setting along the global 'baseball seam' of oceanic spreading centers. No other such comparison has been possible due to the lack of sampling effort for larvae with large-volume pumps. Also, they are proposing the first experiments with live vent larvae (to the best of our knowledge - with the exception of brachyuran megalopae at 1 atm) to estimate swimming and sinking rates that are important for adding behavioral information to models of larval dispersal.

Broader Impacts: The project involves reciprocal training and cultural exchange - the PIs will learn field and laboratory research techniques from the Japanese PIs, and they will learn from the U.S. PIs. The project will also benefit the career development of a junior researcher (Beaulieu). The proposed activity broadens the participation of both U.S. and Japanese women scientists in sea-going, oceanographic research. The PIs will broadcast the cruise activities in a web log posted by the international InterRidge Program Office, and they anticipate at least three scientific publications will emerge. New species will be added to the online photographic identification guide for vent larvae and included in the second edition of the printed guide.

Additional cruise data and information are available from MGDS: http://www.marine-geo.org/tools/search/entry.php?id=YK10-11



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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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