Time series HPLC pigment data as measured by the Bermuda Biological Research Station (BBRS) from B/O Hermano Gines cruises CAR-002 to CAR-030 in the CARIACO basin from 1995-12-13 through 1998-04-21 (CARIACO Ocean Time-Series Program)

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3293
Data Type: Cruise Results
Version: 1
Version Date: 2019-09-24

Project
» CARIACO Ocean Time-Series Program (CARIACO)

Programs
» U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (U.S. JGOFS)
» Ocean Time-series Sites (Ocean Time-series)
» Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Muller-Karger, FrankUniversity of South Florida (USF)Principal Investigator
Astor, YreneEstacion de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita (EDIMAR-FLASA)Co-Principal Investigator
Scranton, Mary I.Stony Brook University (SUNY Stony Brook)Co-Principal Investigator
Taylor, Gordon T.Stony Brook University (SUNY Stony Brook)Co-Principal Investigator
Thunell, Robert C.University of South CarolinaCo-Principal Investigator
Troccoli, LuisUniversidad de Oriente, Venezuela (UDO)Co-Principal Investigator
Varela, RamonEstacion de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita (EDIMAR-FLASA)Co-Principal Investigator
Lorenzoni, LauraUniversity of South Florida (USF)Contact
Rueda-Roa, DignaUniversity of South Florida (USF)Contact
Biddle, MathewWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager
McKee, TheresaWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

Abstract
The CARIACO Ocean Time-Series Program (formerly known as CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean) started on November 1995 (CAR-001) and ended on January 2017 (CAR-232). Throughout the CARIACO time-series, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) data was analyzed by four different laboratories: Bermuda Biological Research Station; Mote Marine Laboratory; Horn Point Laboratory; and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This package contains the data analyzed at the Bermuda Biological Research Station, covering cruises CAR-002 to CAR-030 from 1995-12-13 to 1998-04-21. Some of the parameters analyzed were different along time and along the different laboratories. To keep the continuity of the HPLC time-series analyzed by different laboratories, all the HPLC files have the same units and contain the same number and order of columns/parameters (with “nd” to indicate when a parameter was no determined). Fluorometric Chlorophyll-a and Phaeopigments (measured at Estación de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita, Fundación La Salle, EDIMAR-FLASA) are also included. HPLC was not analyzed for cruises CAR-069 to CAR-123. A general description of the CARIACO Ocean Time-Series Program can be found at www.imars.usf.edu/cariaco.


Coverage

Spatial Extent: N:10.509 E:-64.658 S:10.484 W:-64.676
Temporal Extent: 1995-12-13 - 1998-04-21

Dataset Description

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment data from the CARIACO time series stations and analyzed at the Bermuda Biological Research Station for the cruises from 1995-12-13 t0 1998-04-21.

Below are the additional CARIACO HPLC data at BCO-DMO which were analyzed at different laboratories:

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center from 2011-01-11 to 2017-01-12 (cruises CAR-176 to CAR-232):
www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/777689
Mote Marine Laboratory from 1998-06-09 to 2001-07-10 (cruises CAR-031 to CAR-068):
www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3292
Horn Point Laboratory from 2006-07-04 to 2010-12-08 (cruises CAR-124 to CAR-175):
www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3235

These data  were also funded by the following awards:
- 23914: Ley Orgánica de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, LOCTI (Estación de Investigaciones Marinas), Venezuela.
- 2011000353: Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research, IAI (IAI-CRN3094).


Acquisition Description

Water for the HPLC filters was collected from the first cast done during the CARIACO core cruises, carried out around 5 am local time. During periods of low primary production, 2000 ml. of water were vacuum filtered through a 47mm GF/F filter pad. During periods of high primary production, water was filtered until the filter was clogged. The volume of water filtered was annotated. Eight depths were sampled: 1, 7, 15, 25, 35, 55, 75 and 100 m. If a chlorophyll maximum was found at a different depth, this depth was also sampled. A duplicate was taken at one of these depths (usually at 1m), for QA/QC assessment. Filters were carefully folded in half, stored in aluminum foil and refrigerated until reaching shore. Once back on shore, they were stored frozen at -40°C. Filters were transported from Margarita Island to USF and stored frozen (at -40°C) until they were shipped in a liquid-nitrogen storage to the laboratory that performed the HPLC analysis. The CARIACO samples of HPLC were analyzed by: Bermuda Biological Research Station, BBRS (CAR-002 to CAR-030); MOTE Marine Laboratory & Aquarium (CAR-031 to CAR-068), Horn Point Laboratory, HPL (CAR-124 to CAR-175); and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, GSFC (CAR-176 to CAR-232). Analysis at HPL and GSFC were carried out according to the method described in Hooker et al. (2005), Chapter 5. The HPLC parameter names as reported in this dataset correspond to the pigment names as defined in the NASA SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) (https://seabass.gsfc.nasa.gov/wiki/stdfields). Fluorometric estimations of chlorophyll-a and phaeopigments concentrations were done with a Turner Design10-AU-005 Fluorometer using standard methods (Holm-Hansen et al., 1965; Falkowski and Kiefer, 1985). The detailed methodology for the determination of Chlorophyll a and Phaeopigments can be found in the HANDBOOK OF METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF OCEANOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS AT THE CARIACO TIME-SERIES STATION,  edited by Astor, Lorenzoni and Scranton (2011).  (https://seabass.gsfc.nasa.gov/archive/USF/FMK/CARIACO/2015/documents/CAR...)


Processing Description

BCO-DMO processing notes:
- added conventional header with dataset name, PI name, version date
- modified parameter names to conform with BCO-DMO naming conventions


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Related Publications

Falkowski, P., & Kiefer, D. A. (1985). Chlorophyll a fluorescence in phytoplankton: relationship to photosynthesis and biomass. Journal of Plankton Research, 7(5), 715–731. doi:10.1093/plankt/7.5.715
Holm-Hansen, O., Lorenzen, C. J., Holmes, R. W., & Strickland, J. D. H. (1965). Fluorometric Determination of Chlorophyll. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 30(1), 3–15. doi:10.1093/icesjms/30.1.3
Hooker, S.; L. Van Heukelem; C. S. Thomas; H. Claustre, J. Ras; R. Barlow; H. Sessions; L. Schlüter; J. Perl and C. Trees; V. Stuart; E. Head; L. Clementso; J. Fishwick; C. Llewellyn and J. Aiken. 2005. The Second SeaWiFS HPLC Analysis Round-Robin Experiment (SeaHARRE-2). NASA Technical Memorandum NASA/TM-2005-212785.

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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
Cruise_ID1cruise ID for OCB; unitless
Cruise_ID2cruise ID for the CARIACO project; unitless
Cruise_numbernumber of cruise; unitless
legnumber of cruise in the same month; unitless
castnumber of the rosette cast; unitless
Datedate; yyyymmdd unitless
sample_numbernumber of sample; unitless
Analyzed_bylaboratoory that did the analysis; unitless
lon_nintended longitude; west indicated with negative values decimal degrees
lat_nintended latitude; north indicated as positivie values decimal degrees
lonactual longitude; west indicated with negative values decimal degrees
latactual latitude; north indicated as positivie values decimal degrees
yearyear of sampling; unitless
monthmonth of sampling; unitless
dayday of sampling; unitless
depth_bottommaximum depth; meters (m)
depthsample depth; meters (m)
time_start_localstarting time of the cast (Venezuelan Standard Time; VET); unitless
time_end_localend time of the cast (Venezuelan Standard Time; VET); unitless
time_start_UTCstarting time of the cast (UTC); unitless
time_end_UTCend time of the cast (UTC); unitless
Date_time_localdate and time of sampling (Venezuelan Standard Time; VET); unitless
Date_time_UTCdate and time of sampling (UTC); unitless
Tot_Chl_aHPLC divinyl chlorophyll a + monovinyl chlorophyll a + chlorophyllide a + chlorophyll a allomer + chlorophyll a prime;DV_Chl_a + MV_Chl_a + Chlide_a + Chl_a allomers + Chl_a epimers miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
Tot_Chl_bHPLC divinyl chlorophyll b + monovinyl chlorophyll_b;DV_Chl_b + MV_Chl_b + Chl_b epimers miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
Tot_Chl_cHPLC chlorophyll c1 + chlorophyll c2 (or chl_c1_c2) + chlorophyll c3;Chl_c3 + Chl_c12 miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
alpha_beta_CarHPLC alpha beta carotenes;alpha (beta; epsilon) + beta (beta; beta) carotene. miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
alpha_CarHPLC carotene-alpha; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
beta_CarHPLC carotene-beta; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
But_fucoHPLC 19'-Butanoyloxyfucoxanthin; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
Hex_fucoHPLC 19'-Hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
AlloHPLC Alloxanthin; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
DiadinoHPLC Diadinoxanthin; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
DiatoHPLC Diatoxanthin; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
FucoHPLC Fucoxanthin; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
PeridHPLC Peridinin; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
ZeaHPLC Zeaxanthin; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
MV_Chl_aHPLC Monovinyl Chorophyll a; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
DV_Chl_aHPLC Divinyl Chorophyll a; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
Chlide_aHPLC chlorophyllide a; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
Chl_a_allomHPLC chlorophyll a allomer; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
Chl_a_primeHPLC chlorophyll a prime (Chl_a_Prime is the 132S-epimer of Chi a3); miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
MV_Chl_bHPLC Monovinyl Chorophyll b; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
DV_Chl_bHPLC Divinyl Chorophyll b; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
Chl_c1HPLC chlorophyll c1; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
Chl_c2HPLC chlorophyll c2; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
Chl_c1c2HPLC chlorophyll c1 plus c2;Chlorophyll c2 + chlorophyll c1 + MGDVP miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
Chl_c3HPLC chlorophyll c3; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
LutHPLC Lutein; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
NeoHPLC Neoxanthin; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
ViolaHPLC Violaxanthin; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
Phytin_aHPLC Pheophytin a;pheophytin a + pheophytin a' miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
Phide_aHPLC total pheophorbide a;multiple peaks miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
PrasHPLC Prasinoxanthin; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
AnthHPLC Antheraxanthin; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
GyroHPLC Gyroxanthin-Diester; miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
TChlHPLC total chlorophylls;Tot_Chl_a +Tot_Chl_b +Tot_Chl_c miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
PPCHPLC photoprotective carotenoids;allo + diadino + diato + zea + alpha-beta-car miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
PSCHPLC photosynthetic carotenoids;but-fuco + fuco + hex-fuco + perid miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
PSPHPLC phosynthetic pigments;PSC + TChl miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
TcarHPLC total carotenoids ;PPC + PSC miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
TaccHPLC total accessory pigments;PPC + PSC + Tot_Chl_b + Tot_Chl_c miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
TpgHPLC total pigments;TAcc + Tot_Chl_a miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
DPHPLC total diagnostic pigments;PSC + allo + zea + Tot_Chl_b miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
Tacc_TChlaHPLC ratio of total accessory pigments to total chlorophll a;[Tacc]/[Tchla] unitless
PSC_TcarHPLC ratio of photsynthetic carotenoids to total carotenoids;[PSC]/[TCar] unitless
PPC_TcarHPLC ratio of photprotective carotenoids to total carotenoids;[PPC]/[Tcar] unitless
TChl_TcarHPLC ratio of total chlorophyll to total carotenoids;[TChl]/[TCaro] unitless
PPC_TpgHPLC ratio of photoprotective carotenoids to total pigments;[PPC]/[Tpg] unitless
PSP_TpgHPLC ratio of photsynthetic pigments to to total pigments;[PSP]/[TPg] unitless
TChla_TpgHPLC raito of total chlorophyll a to total pigments;[TChla]/[TPg] unitless
mPFHPLC microplankton [mPF]; unitless
nPFHPLC nanoplankton [nPF]; unitless
pPFHPLC picoplankton [pPF]; unitless
Fluor_Chl_aFluorometric Chlorophyll-a ;Measured at La Salle miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
Fluor_PhaeoFluorometric Phaeopigments;Measured at La Salle miligrams per meter cubed (mg/m^3)
Commentsadditional comments unitless


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Niskin bottle
Generic Instrument Name
Niskin bottle
Dataset-specific Description
Niskin bottle
Generic Instrument Description
A Niskin bottle (a next generation water sampler based on the Nansen bottle) is a cylindrical, non-metallic water collection device with stoppers at both ends. The bottles can be attached individually on a hydrowire or deployed in 12, 24 or 36 bottle Rosette systems mounted on a frame and combined with a CTD. Niskin bottles are used to collect discrete water samples for a range of measurements including pigments, nutrients, plankton, etc.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Generic Instrument Name
High Performance Liquid Chromatograph
Dataset-specific Description
High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Generic Instrument Description
A High-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) is a type of liquid chromatography used to separate compounds that are dissolved in solution. HPLC instruments consist of a reservoir of the mobile phase, a pump, an injector, a separation column, and a detector. Compounds are separated by high pressure pumping of the sample mixture onto a column packed with microspheres coated with the stationary phase. The different components in the mixture pass through the column at different rates due to differences in their partitioning behavior between the mobile liquid phase and the stationary phase. (http://www.files.chem.vt.edu/chem-ed/sep/lc/hplc.html)


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Deployments

HG93_CARIACO

Website
Platform
B/O Hermano Gines
Start Date
1995-11-08
Description
Monthly oceanographic cruises to the CARIACO station (10.5 degrees N, 64.67 degrees W) have been conducted since November 1995 to examine the hydrography, primary production, and settling flux of particulate material. The research vessel is the 75-foot B/O (Barco Oceanografico) Hermano Gines of the Fundaciòn La Salle de Ciencias Naturales (FLASA) located on Margarita Island, Venezuela. Water is collected using a rosette ensemble equipped with twelve 8-liter bottles and a CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth meter); the CTD also has an oxygen sensor, a fluorometer for chlorophyll-a estimates, and a transmissometer. Data are read out real-time on a computer screen on board the ship as the rosette ensemble is lowered to approximately 1,380 m, the bottom of the Cariaco Basin. Water samples are analyzed for various parameters including phytoplankton biomass, dissolved and particulate nutrient and carbon concentration, primary productivity rates and total bacterial production.


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Project Information

CARIACO Ocean Time-Series Program (CARIACO)


Coverage: CARIACO basin


Since 1995, the CARIACO Ocean Time-Series (formerly known as the CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean) Program has studied the relationship between surface primary production, physical forcing variables like the wind, and the settling flux of particulate carbon in the Cariaco Basin. This depression, located on the continental shelf of Venezuela (Map), shows marked seasonal and interannual variation in hydrographic properties and primary production (carbon fixation rates by photosynthesis of planktonic algae). This peculiar basin is anoxic below ~250 m, due its restricted circulation and high primary production (Muller-Karger et al., 2001). CARIACO observations show annual primary production rates exceed 500 gC/m2y, of which over 15-20% can be accounted for by events lasting one month or less. Such events are observed in other locations where time series observations are collected, and suggest that prior estimates of regional production based on limited sampling may have been underestimated. The annual primary production rates in the Cariaco Basin are comparable to rates estimated using time series observations for Monterey Bay (460 gC/m2y; Chavez, 1996), and higher than previous rates estimated for Georges Bank, the New York Shelf, and the Oregon Shelf (380, 300, and 190 gC/m2y, respectively; Walsh, 1988). The Cariaco Basin has long been the center of attention of scientists trying to explain paleoclimate. Due to its high rates of sedimentation (30 to >100 cm/ky; Peterson et al., 2000) and excellent preservation, the varved sediments of the Cariaco Basin offer the opportunity to study high resolution paleoclimate and better understand the role of the tropics in global climate change ( Black et al., 1999; Peterson et al., 2000; Haug et al., 2001; Black et al., 2004; Hughen et al., 2004 ). Now, the CARIACO program provides a link between the sediment record and processes near the surface of the ocean. Sediment traps maintained by the CARIACO program show that over 5% of autochtonous material reaches 275 m depth, and that nearly 2% reaches 1,400 m. The significance of this flux is that it represents a sink for carbon and that it helps explain the record of ancient climate stored at the bottom of the Cariaco Basin. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Venezuela's Fondo Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnologí­a e Innovación (FONACIT). For more information please see this Acknowledgements link.


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Program Information

U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (U.S. JGOFS)


Coverage: Global


The United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study was a national component of international JGOFS and an integral part of global climate change research. The U.S. launched the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) in the late 1980s to study the ocean carbon cycle. An ambitious goal was set to understand the controls on the concentrations and fluxes of carbon and associated nutrients in the ocean. A new field of ocean biogeochemistry emerged with an emphasis on quality measurements of carbon system parameters and interdisciplinary field studies of the biological, chemical and physical process which control the ocean carbon cycle. As we studied ocean biogeochemistry, we learned that our simple views of carbon uptake and transport were severely limited, and a new "wave" of ocean science was born. U.S. JGOFS has been supported primarily by the U.S. National Science Foundation in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Energy and the Office of Naval Research. U.S. JGOFS, ended in 2005 with the conclusion of the Synthesis and Modeling Project (SMP).

Ocean Time-series Sites (Ocean Time-series)

Coverage: Bermuda, Cariaco Basin, Hawaii


Program description text taken from Chapter 1: Introduction from the Global Intercomparability in a Changing Ocean: An International Time-Series Methods Workshop report published following the workshop held November 28-30, 2012 at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences. The full report is available from the workshop Web site hosted by US OCB: http://www.whoi.edu/website/TS-workshop/home Decades of research have demonstrated that the ocean varies across a range of time scales, with anthropogenic forcing contributing an added layer of complexity. In a growing effort to distinguish between natural and human-induced earth system variability, sustained ocean time-series measurements have taken on a renewed importance. Shipboard biogeochemical time-series represent one of the most valuable tools scientists have to characterize and quantify ocean carbon fluxes and biogeochemical processes and their links to changing climate (Karl, 2010; Chavez et al., 2011; Church et al., 2013). They provide the oceanographic community with the long, temporally resolved datasets needed to characterize ocean climate, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem change. The temporal scale of shifts in marine ecosystem variations in response to climate change are on the order of several decades.  The long-term, consistent and comprehensive monitoring programs conducted by time-series sites are essential to understand large-scale atmosphere-ocean interactions that occur on interannual to decadal time scales.  Ocean time-series represent one of the most valuable tools scientists have to characterize and quantify ocean carbon fluxes and biogeochemical processes and their links to changing climate. Launched in the late 1980s, the US JGOFS (Joint Global Ocean Flux Study; http://usjgofs.whoi.edu) research program initiated two time-series measurement programs at Hawaii and Bermuda (HOT and BATS, respectively) to measure key oceanographic measurements in oligotrophic waters. Begun in 1995 as part of the US JGOFS Synthesis and Modeling Project, the CARIACO Ocean Time-Series (formerly known as the CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean) Program has studied the relationship between surface primary production, physical forcing variables like the wind, and the settling flux of particulate carbon in the Cariaco Basin. The objective of these time-series effort is to provide well-sampled seasonal resolution of biogeochemical variability at a limited number of ocean observatories, provide support and background measurements for process-oriented research, as well as test and validate observations for biogeochemical models. Since their creation, the BATS, CARIACO and HOT time-series site data have been available for use by a large community of researchers.   Data from those three US funded, ship-based, time-series sites can be accessed at each site directly or by selecting the site name from the Projects section below.  

Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB)


Coverage: Global


The Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program focuses on the ocean's role as a component of the global Earth system, bringing together research in geochemistry, ocean physics, and ecology that inform on and advance our understanding of ocean biogeochemistry. The overall program goals are to promote, plan, and coordinate collaborative, multidisciplinary research opportunities within the U.S. research community and with international partners. Important OCB-related activities currently include: the Ocean Carbon and Climate Change (OCCC) and the North American Carbon Program (NACP); U.S. contributions to IMBER, SOLAS, CARBOOCEAN; and numerous U.S. single-investigator and medium-size research projects funded by U.S. federal agencies including NASA, NOAA, and NSF. The scientific mission of OCB is to study the evolving role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle, in the face of environmental variability and change through studies of marine biogeochemical cycles and associated ecosystems. The overarching OCB science themes include improved understanding and prediction of: 1) oceanic uptake and release of atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases and 2) environmental sensitivities of biogeochemical cycles, marine ecosystems, and interactions between the two. The OCB Research Priorities (updated January 2012) include: ocean acidification; terrestrial/coastal carbon fluxes and exchanges; climate sensitivities of and change in ecosystem structure and associated impacts on biogeochemical cycles; mesopelagic ecological and biogeochemical interactions; benthic-pelagic feedbacks on biogeochemical cycles; ocean carbon uptake and storage; and expanding low-oxygen conditions in the coastal and open oceans.


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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
Fondo Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación of Venezuela (FONACIT)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA)
Fondo Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación of Venezuela (FONACIT)
Fondo Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación of Venezuela (FONACIT)

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